ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Hematological Tests And Radiological Investigations In Nephrology

Updated on February 4, 2014

Blood Urea Investigation

Normal blood urea is 30-40 mg/dl and BUN is 15-20mg/dl. The value of blood urea or BUN give an approximate estimate of the glomerular filtration.
Normal blood urea is 30-40 mg/dl and BUN is 15-20mg/dl. The value of blood urea or BUN give an approximate estimate of the glomerular filtration. | Source

Hematological Investigations

Normocytic normochromic anemia develops in chronic renal failure. Neutrophil leukocytosis occurs in bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Platelet function is deranged in chronic renal failure.

Biochemical tests: Investigations of the blood and urine are necessary in assessing the renal function. These tests also help in determining selectively the functions of the different parts of the nephron.

Blood Urea and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): Normal blood urea is 30-40 mg/dl and BUN is 15-20mg/dl. The value of blood urea or BUN give an approximate estimate of the glomerular filtration. In addition to changes in GFR, several other factors like the state of hydration, urine flow rate and protein intake alter the serum levels of BU and BUN. These parameters, therefore are less valuable indices of glomerular filtration when compared to levels of serum creatinine.

Serum Creatinine: The normal value is 0.8-1.5mg/dl. Serum creatinine level depends mostly on the glomerular filtration rate. Creatinine is completely filtered by the glomerulus and it is not further modified during its passage down the tubules. Creatinine clearance is a reliable index of glomerular filtration rate. Normal creatinine clearance is 115+15ml/min. When the serum creatinine level is double the normal, it indicates that the clearance has fallen by 50%

Serum electrolytes: Estimation of serum electrolytes, plasma bicarbonate and pH helps to assess renal function. Serum cholesterol and lipids are elevated in some types of nephrotic syndrome and chronic renal failure.

Uric acid: Hyperuricemia may be the result of renal failure. On the contrary, a high serum uric acid level per se, irrespective of the cause, can produce renal damage. In renal failure caused by hyperuricemia, the excretion of uric acid (estimate in a 24 hour urine sample) exceeds that of creatinine.

Serum calcium levels are low in chronic renal failure. Secondary hyperparathyroidism may develop and this may result in elevation of serum calcium levels and secondary bone changes. Serum inorganic phosphorus levels are increased in acute and chronic renal failure.

Kidney Stones On X-ray


Radiological investigations

Plain X-ray of the abdomen taken after suitable preparation gives a good picture of the kidney. Abnormalities of size and presence of calculi or calcification can be seen. Normally, the two kidneys do not differ more than 2 cm in length. If the difference is greater, generally the smaller kidney tends to be abnormal. Renal function and anatomy of the collecting system can be assessed by contrast radiography [viz. intravenous urography (IVU)]. Modifications of the conventional intravenous urogram are rapid sequence IVU and high dose infusions IVU and these are done depending on the specific indications. Retrograde pyelography is the procedure by which the ureter is catheterized and the pelvicalyceal system is visualized by contrast readigraphy. Cystourethrography helps in studying the bladder, urethra and vesicoureteric junction. Micturationg cystogram i.e. picture taken while the patient passes urine after introducing radiopaque contrast into the bladder, helps in establishing the presence of vesicoureteric reflux. Aortography performed by injecting dye into the aorta, brings out the renal arteries and the renal vascular pattern. Selective angiography can be done after catheterizing the renal arteries. Renal venograms can be obtained by injecting the dye into the renal veins.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)