- Education and Science
Relative Values: The Need to Preserve our Historic Architecture from Acts of Cultural Vandalism
Dedication to Khaled al-Asaad
Khaled al-Asaad died for the buildings he loved. Please see my tribute to Khaled al-Asaad later on in this article
This article looks at the values which we place on our cultural heritage, and specifically the remarkable architecture and the monumental sculptures which should rank among our most historic and most treasured relics.
These solid, tangible links to our past are sometimes taken for granted by the inhabitants of the present-day countries in which they are found. But their value to the cultural history of the whole world should be of importance to everyone, and more so today than ever. Cultural identity is changing in many countries, and the threats - particularly in one part of the world today - are truly horrific.
N.B: Please note, all my articles are best read on desktops and laptops
Relative Values in Our Society
Ask what the most precious quality of life on Earth is, and many would answer without hesitation, human life itself. We value this above all else. We place such high store by it that in many societies all human life is considered sacrosanct, whatever its state of being. Indeed, the greatest crime anyone can ordinarily commit is the crime of murder, the willful taking of another person's life.
This article does not take issue with society's duty to care for the lives of each and every one of its citizens. But are there other values which could be considered equal to or even higher than human life itself? Could be or should be?
This is the first of a short series looking at the relative values which we place on immensely important elements of our society, culture and environment. This article will focus on the place of historic architecture in the modern world and its irreplaceability, with illustrated examples.
The Inspiration for this Page
This page written in 2015 was inspired by recent events in the Middle East in Iraq and Syria, and the acts of cultural vandalism carried out by the group known as 'ISIL', or 'ISIS', 'Islamic State' or 'Da'esh', at the time of writing an Islamic organisation which has gained control of large areas of these nations, and which goes under various names. ISIL has been responsible for some of the most barbaric acts to have been perpetrated against individual humans in recent memory, including brutal executions. But ISIL has also carried out some other actions which have shocked and appalled many who care about our culture - the destruction of priceless relics from antiquity.
The terrible loss of these historic sites in Iraq and Syria will be highlighted here together with other recent cases of cultural destruction. However, first there is a brief look at architectural vandalism before the 20th century.
Historic Destruction Across the World, Pre-20th Century
Lest anyone think that the behaviour of ISIL is a modern phenomenon, that is of course, not the case. Throughout all the history of human 'civilisation' and ever since two tribes first went to war against each other, people have been destroying the great works created by their predecessors, or by contemporary rivals. Sometimes it has been for purely practical reasons - ruined buildings provide a ready source of material for use in new constructions. But often it's been done to deliberately irradicate all that remains of a vanquished culture, or to wipe out opposing belief systems.
And the consequence has been the loss of unique architecture from every period of human history. In ancient times it was common for the monuments of old rulers to be broken up by new emperors and kings who regarded the memory of their predecessors as a threat to their own power. And depictions of another society's gods would often be destroyed as heretical. And whole cities like Troy and Carthage would be razed to the ground to ensure a defeated rival could never rise again. What's more, modern day cultural vandals like ISIL are a kindred spirit to the Christians of the 4th and 5th century, who closed down and destroyed the temples and shrines to the former Roman Gods to replace them with churches. All these ancient acts of vandalism robbed Western civilization of a beautiful and important part of our own art history and culture.
The spread of Christianity and then Islam had further drastic effects on the cultures they subjugated over the next millenium throughout Europe, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. And since then, the emergence of new colonialist empires such as Spain, France and Britain, has led to further devastation of indigenous societies. Many of their significant buildings were left intact by these empires, due to the practical needs of a small colonial force to maintain an infrastructure in far distant parts of the world, and the sheer difficulty of demolishing monumental architecture. However, on occasion entire cities established long ago, continued to be lost. Cities such as the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, buried under the foundations of modern day Mexico City. And huge numbers of cultural artifacts were destroyed or removed (the subject of a later article).
And even if there was no intent to obliterate historic architecture, simple wanton neglect by a new controlling army, empire, or belief system, would lead to the slow crumbling or burial of archaelogical sites, rendering them all the more vulnerable to later physical destruction - be it malicious or natural.
Many today wonder at the great ruins of antiquity, but frankly the author of this article wonders that any are left at all - given the propensity of intolerant humans to pillage and destroy. Perhaps the events described above took place in less enlightened times, though that does not make them any less tragic. But cultural vandalism was sadly not restricted to less enlightened times. It continues today, and today's intolerant humans have immensely powerful weapons at their disposal which makes it easy to destroy buildings which had previously withstood centuries of onslaught. The rest of this article is concerned with cultural destruction in the 20th and 21st centuries, and we look first at the concerns over the ISIL group.
Blowing up the shrine of Mashhad al-Imam 'Awn al-Din - destroyed by ISIL in July 2014
The Threat of ISIL Against Architectural Heritage
The nations of Iraq and Syria lie in that part of the world which is in the very cradle of civilisation. The region where our species first adopted a farming lifestyle, and first established sedentary communities. The region lies near the birth centre of three of the world's most significant religions and was home in ancient history to such landmark cities as Babylon (Iraq), Hattusa (Turkey), and Jerusalem (Israel and Palestine), Persepolis (Iran) and Petra (Jordan). Damascus, the capital of Syria, is said by some to be the oldest continuously inhabited city on Earth. And just a little further afield are the extraordinary sites of Egypt, Crete and Greece. It goes without further comment that this region is the richest in the world for archaeological treasures. Literally tens of thousands of historically important sites can be found here, and many of these lie within the modern boundaries of Iraq and Syria.
The sudden take over by ISIL of a large part of these two countries in 2014 shocked the world. Immediate concern was over the fate of non-Muslim hostages kidnapped by the group. But it has since emerged that ISIL, who follow a very extreme iconoclastic form of Sunni Islam called Wahhabism, had other targets too - the myriad archaeological sites and historic buildings of the region. Why have they decided to attack buildings? It's not entirely clear, but several reasons have been conjectured.
ISIL cannot tolerate any culture which deviates from their world view. This includes not only Christian or Jewish sites and sites which predate the rise of these two religions, but also Muslim mosques which reflect a different form of Islam such as Shi'ism or Sufism. It's not just architecture either. Any images or structures perceived as being idolatorous have also been attacked. Thus, ancient images of polytheistic gods, depictions of human beings or animals, and even the graves of Islamic prophets and revered historical figures, have fallen foul of ISIL. Entire buildings and complexes of buildings which exhibit any of these characteristics have apparently been deemed 'un-Islamic' and ear-marked for destruction by the group.
At its most extreme, whether it be intolerance of other faiths or intolerance of Islamic artifacts considered idolatory, this iconoclasm has been seen by some as an attempt to create a new 'Year Zero', the mentality being that all trace of the past has to be deleted. According to Mohammad Rabia Chaar, a Syrian writer now living in exile:
ISIL 'wants people with no memory, with no history, (and) with no culture'
However, not all antiquities which have come within the realm of ISIL control have been destroyed. Some of the smaller, more transportable pieces, have been sold to fund its military and state building enterprises - a certain practicality overriding the ideology. And with sound reasoning. The richness of antiquities in this part of the world refers not merely to their abundance and importance, but more literally to the value they have on the black market. Even small archaeological relics have monetary values which may run into hundreds of thousands of dollars.
Finally, ISIL sees the destruction of iconic sites as a simple means by which to shock the world. Terrorism in all its forms - even those groups which seek to legitimise themselves through statehood - can only work through publicity, and these atrocities clearly raise the profile of ISIL as a powerful organisation which can act with impunity.
Sites Destroyed by ISIL
In this section, just a few of the many sites so far targeted by ISIL are briefly described as an illustration of what has already been lost to the world through the actions of this group.
Although its origins reach back more than a decade, it is only in the past two years that ISIL has become a serious territorial force occupying vast swathes of land, principally in northern and western Iraq and Eastern Syria.
In Syria, ISIL was initially preoccupied in the Civil War, fighting both government and rebel factions. So it was in Iraq that the group first achieved worldwide notoriety for its attacks against both human life and cultural treasures soon after taking control of the region.
Mosul, one of the largest cities in Iraq, fell under ISIL control in June 2014, and the bleakness of the outlook for all of its many religious sites was immediately apparent. An early casualty was the Mosque of the Prophet Younis, shown in the first photo on this page and in the video above. This was a historic place of worship, significant for both the Islamic and Judeo-Christian faiths. 'Younis' is the Arabic name for 'Jonah', and a shrine at this site was believed to be the tomb of the prophet mentioned in both the Biblical Old Testament and in the Quran. The tomb was part of an archaeological site dating back to at least the 8th century BC, but later incorporated into a Sunni Mosque. Despite this, ISIL regarded this site as 'un-Islamic', and said that the mosque had become a 'centre for apostasy'. It was blown up on 24th July 2014. Another mosque - the Imam Aoun Bin al-Hassan Mosque - was destroyed on the same day.
That week in July also saw several other casualties in Mosul. The shrine of Mashhad al-Imam 'Awn al-Din was a tomb dating to 1248, though subsequently renovated. Built from stone, marble and brick, its most distinctive feature was the great pyramidal tower which raised it to a height of 30 m - the tallest mausoleum in Iraq - until ISIL blew it up on 25th July 2014. A video is included earlier. Another mosque was the Mosque of the Prophet Jerjis, also identified with the Patron Saint of England, Saint George. This was certainly very ancient, last renovated in the late 14th century, but destroyed by ISIL on 27th July. And on 26th February 2015, the 12th century al-Khudr Mosque was also destroyed.The city has several mosques of similar or greater age. The oldest of all was the Umayyad Mosque, built in 640 AD. An original minaret from this mosque was still standing when ISIL took control. Reports conflict as to whether it still stands.
A Christian community has long resided in Mosul, and many churches and monasteries were built here, some dating to before the emergence of Islam in the region. All had archaeological as well as spiritual significance. But on June 16th 2014, ISIL decreed that all should be destroyed. It is not clear how many - if any - still stand today. Just one - the 12-13th century Monastery of Mar Behnam - is illustrated here. And it's not just mosques and churches which have suffered in Mosul. In April 2015 ISIL attacked the 12th century Bash Tapia Castle, on the west bank of the Tigris river. Now it is gone.
Further south, sites in the city of Tikrit were also demolished. On September 24, 2014, one of the oldest of all Iraqi Islamic sites was blown up - the Al-Arba'een Mosque contained 40 tombs dated to the late 6th or early 7th century AD. Also in September, the Assyrian Green Church was demolished. This church was first built in the year 700.
When ISIL turned their attention to Syria, similar sites were targeted, as well as more recent, yet still poignantly symbolic buildings. The Armenian Genocide Memorial Church - memorial to a million or more Armenians slaughtered by the Ottoman Empire during World War One - was blown up on 21st September 2014. And the pretty Virgin Mary Church in Tel Nasri was demolished on Easter Sunday 2015.
The loss of these mosques, churches, shrines and other sites has been devastating. And truly historic sites predating even the rise of Christianity or Islam have also been targeted since the beginning of 2015. Ancient Dur-Sharrukin (present day Khorsabad) in northeastern Iraq was for a brief period the palace and capital city of Assyrian King Sargon II. Development of the city began c721 BC, but was halted when Sargon was killed in battle in 705 BC. Since then the site fell into ruination. Archaeological work at Dur-Sharrukin began in the 19th century, and many ancient artifacts were excavated and removed, but some remained - unfortunately - because in March 2015, these fragile ruins were attacked by ISIL.
Even more ancient sites have been damaged, including Tell Brak in Syria, the site of a long established city which was once known as Nagar. Nagar reached the pinnacle of its importance between the 4th millenium BC and the 2nd millennium BC. But an original Bronze Age settlement here is believed to date back to at least 6,000 BC.
One can scarcely do justice to the scale of devastation in Iraq and Syria. All that has been mentioned here is but a very small selection of the total number of buildings to have been destroyed. All were of cultural or architectural importance, and some were truly ancient treasures. And foremost among these are two whose destruction has received worldwide publicity. These were the cities of Nimrud and Hatra.
Most sites attacked in 2014 had been religious places of worship. It was in 2015 that the most ancient sites were also attacked, including the city of Nimrud. Founded more than 3200 years ago, Nimrud was once capital of the mighty Assyrian Empire, which between the 3rd millennium BC and the 7th century BC, ruled large swathes of the Middle East from Egypt to the Persian Gulf in the south, and as far north as modern day Turkey.
Throughout the Neo-Assyrian era, the heartland of the Empire was in the land now claimed by Iraq and Syria, and it was during the late 'Neo-Assyrian' Era that Nimrud rose to its greatest prominence, when it was established as the capital under the rule of the brutal and expansionist King Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC). It maintained this prestigious position for about 150 years until King Sargon moved his residence to Dur-Sharrukin. Nimrud however would remain a major city and royal residence until the final fall of the Empire to invading forces c 610 BC. Culture flourished here, and Nimrud would have been one of the most important cities on Earth, covering an area of about 400 hectares, and the site of extravagant temples and palaces. It would have been renouned throughout the civilised world, and has been identified as the Biblical city of Calah, mentioned in Genesis 10.
After the fall of Assyria, Nimrud descended into neglect, and eventually was buried and forgotten in the desert sands. In the modern era, archaeological excavations began in 1845, and continued intermittently before recommencing in earnest in 1949. During this work, many artifacts and sculptures were removed (quite fortunately, in hindsight) and sent to museums around the world, in London, in Paris, and America. But of course the infrastructure of the rooms and walls, wall engravings and some of the larger statues remained in situ. Most famously - some of the lamassu - colossal winged bull statues with a human head - were left in the ruins.
In 2014, ISIL took control of the region, and on 5th March 2015 ISIL claimed - and video evidence confirmed - that they had blown up the entire site of Nimrud.
Nimrud was arguably the most famous and historically important of the sites recently destroyed by ISIL, but it is by no means unique. This region of the world is so rich in other archaeological sites, none of which conform to ISIL's ideal, and all of which may be targeted. And one which already has been, was the incredibly well-preserved city of Hatra - Iraq's only World Heritage Site.
If Nimrud was a late Bronze Age, early Iron Age city of the Assyrians, Hatra belongs to the the Classical Period of Ancient Greece and Rome. The city was believed to have been built in the 2nd or 3rd century BC by the Seleucid Empire, one of several Greek controlled realms following the death of Alexander the Great. But the heyday of the city was as a trading centre between the 2nd century BC, and the 2nd century AD, when under the authority of the Parthian Empire. It is said to have become the capital of an Arab Kingdom in the region. During this era of Roman domination of the Middle East, Hatra resisted sieges by two Emperors, Trajan (116 AD) and Septimus Severus (198 AD), and later defeated a Persian army of conquest, before finally falling to Persian forces in 241 AD. The city was subsequently destroyed, but of course without levelling it to the ground. The ruins remained as the best preserved example of a Parthian city in this region, a complex of temples and columns, 2 km (1.2 m) in diameter, surrounded by a fortified wall.
On 7th March 2015, it was reported that demolition of Hatra by ISIL had begun. Videos later seemed to confirm that it had indeed been destroyed. Images of Hatra from before this event show a beautifully preserved city, little known to most in the West, but surely a site which had the potential to be a major tourist attraction. UNESCO cites the 'Hellenistic and Roman architecture blend(ed) with Eastern decorative features'. The author of this article had never seen Hatra except in video and photos, but would have found the prospect of passing through the grounds an exhilerating walk through ancient history. That will never happen now. No one will ever again have that pleasure.
(The following video has English subtitles. It shows the splendour of Hatra before ISIL occupied the ancient city)
Cultural Vandalism in the Iraqi Civil War and the Syrian Civil War
Deliberate cultural destruction based on theology such as that practised by ISIL, is nothing new; this has blighted the Middle East for decades. But open warfare between nations and within nations, has also quite inevitably caused great damage. In some cases, however, it is not easy to determine whether buildings which are destroyed in war are unintentially caught in the crossfire, or whether the destruction is deliberate, the to inflame tensions or to demoralise the enemy. To illustrate this, we must return to the sad state of affairs in Iraq and Syria, and look at architectural destruction for which ISIL is not directly responsible.
In Iraq, the Samarra Mosque was once the largest mosque in the world, originally built in the 9th century. A 52 m high minaret, with a spiralling ramp around the outside, was its most famous feature. But in 2005, the top of the minaret was destroyed by an insurgent attack. Another mosque - the al-Askari Mosque - is one of the most venerated Shi'ite mosques in the world. Originally constructed in 944 AD. its most prominant features were a 20 m diameter golden dome and minarets. But in 2006 and then again in 2007, two bombings by al-Qaeda destroyed the dome and minarets and much of the rest of the mosque during the height of the Iraqi Civil War - the intent was to inflame tensions and incite further sectarian fighting.
In Syria all sides in the ongoing civil war have caused untold damage. Five out of six UNESCO World Heritage Sites have been extensively damaged or destroyed. One such site is the City of Bosra, occupied since the 14th century BC, and home to a 2nd century Roman theatre and other Roman, Byzantine and early Islamic ruins. Fighting in Bosra has led to considerable damage. The Roman baths, theatre, and nymphaeum have all been affected to varying degrees. So has the Omari Mosque in Bosra, which dates to 702 AD. Apamea, once the capital of the Seleucid empire, and a leading city under Roman and Byzantine rule, was one of the best preserved ruins in the region. Now it has been devastated by looters using heavy earth-moving machines.
Dura-Europos in Syria, is a rich archaeological find. This site includes the remains of temples, tombs and wall carvings. It dates from between the 3rd century BC, and the 3rd century AD, ruled at various times by the Macedonians, Parthians, and Romans. The ruins of one of the world's oldest synagogues was found here, and so was the world's oldest Christian 'church-house' including depictions of Jesus from 235 AD. Syria’s Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums claims that 80% of the site has been damaged by looters. Now it is in the region controlled by ISIL.
The ancient city of Aleppo has suffered too. Much of the famous Al-Madina Souq has been destroyed by fire, and the minaret of the Great Mosque of Aleppo, erected in 1090 AD, has been destroyed, it is believed by Syrian Government shelling. Other sites damaged include the 13th century Citadel of Aleppo.
The rich history of the region has meant that widely different architectural wonders have been badly - perhaps irreparably - damaged by the fighting. The 12th century Crac des Chevaliers - until now, the best preserved of all crusader forts in the Middle East - has suffered damage. In August 2014 a most unusual loss occured - more of a medieval machine than a building. The norias of Hama are giant wooden water wheels up to 20 m (70 ft) in diameter which raise water from the River Orontes for supply to the city via an aquaduct. They are certainly several hundred years old and maybe much older than that, and remarkably they still work. But some of them have been destroyed in the war.
Hundreds of other sites deemed to be of archaeological or historic interest have been damaged or destroyed, maliciously, or simply because they happened to be in the way.
Non-ISIL Acts of Destruction Elsewhere in the Middle East and North African Arenas
This is not an article about ISIL, nor about Iraq and Syria. Extensive attacks on heritage in those two countries provided the inspiration, and ISIL is the most devastating example of this kind of action in recent times, but the article is about the destruction of historically important architecture in all its forms. In this section we continue the sorry tale of attacks on heritage sites elsewhere in the Middle East and the Arab world.
And foremost among all the nations responsible for these attacks, ironically, has been that 'friend' of the west, Saudi Arabia. Despite some concern by this country over the rise of ISIL, the Saudi nation is heavily influenced by the same iconoclastic Wahhabi philosophy as ISIL, attributed to such Koranic and Biblical stories as the 'Adoration of the Golden Calf', and the belief that any worship of shrines or idols should be rejected. Remarkably (and to those who do not belong to the Wahhabi belief system, this may seem almost incomprehensible) even shrines and relics which are associated with the revered prophet Muhammad himself have been targeted, as worship at such places represents a deviation from absolute subservience to Allah.
What's more, the irreverence for these shrines and the consequent willingness in Saudi Arabia to demolish them has been lent added impetus by the desire to accommodate and cater for the burgeoning numbers of pilgrims to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina with construction of new hotels, apartments and wealth-creating shopping malls. The historic sites have had to make way for the modern.
Even before Saudi Arabia ever existed, Ibn Saud, who would one day unite the nation as its first king, destroyed the beautiful al-Baqi Mausoleum and cemetery in Medina, including 7th century shrines from the time of Muhammad - the grave of the prophet's uncle and the Mosque of Fatima (Muhammad's daughter). And since its foundation as an independent nation in 1932, Saudi Arabia has continued the policy of targeting mosques, burial sites and other historic buildings. Much of this destruction in recent years has been associated with accommodating the continued expansion of the Masjid al-Haram (Mosque) at Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque in Medina. In Medina, historic sites destroyed include the home of Muhammad's Egyptian wife Mariyah, whilst the birthplace of his son Ibrahim has been paved over. Only two of seven ancient and famous mosques originally built to commemorate an important conflict in defence of Islamic Medina - the Battle of the Trench - remain. The rest have been destroyed.
In Mecca in 1998, the grave of the prophet's mother, Amina bint Wahb, was bulldozed in al-Abwa.The house of Muhammad's first wife Khadija, is now a toilet block. And recently the Saudi authorities decided to demolish the House of Mawlid, reputed to be the dwelling where Muhammad was born in 570 AD. According to the Washington-based Gulf Institute, as many as 95% of all buildings from the first millenium in Mecca and Medina have been destroyed in the past 20 years, and that includes almost everything associated with Muhammad's life.
Elsewhere in this part of the world, numerous historic buildings have been targeted in Yemen during fighting between Saudi-backed Government forces and Shi'ite rebels. One of the most important is the Great Dam of Marib in the Valley of Dhana. The original dam is the oldest of its kind in the world, dating back at least to 800 BC, and regarded as one of the architectural wonders of the age. It was badly damaged by an airstrike in May 2015. Another airstrike hit the centuries old al-Qahira Castle. Finally the Old City of Sana’a has been reported severely damaged. Inhabited for more than 2,500 years, Sana'a features 103 mosques, 14 hammams (Turkish baths) and over 6,000 houses, all of which are more than 1,000 years old.
During the Bahraini uprising of 2011, 43 Shia mosques were destroyed by the Sunni Government. Most were modern and some had apparently been erected without proper licencing, but at least one - the Amir Mohammed Braighi Mosque - dated back 400 years. Islamic groups associated with ISIL have attacked sites elsewhere in the Middle East and the Gulf. In Libya, Sufi shrines near Tripoli were destroyed by bulldozers and sledgehammers in March 2015. Sufi shrines have also been attacked in Pakistan, Somalia, Tunisia and several other countries. Meanwhile in Iran, the Shi'ite regime has demolished all the holy sites of the Baha'i faith.
Of course other countries have suffered both in conflict and from religious intolerance, notably in the conflict which has forever blighted the region of Palestine. The Old City of Jerusalem was occupied by the Arab League in 1948. At that time all but one of the 35 synagogues in the Jewish Quarter, were destroyed. Much more recently, the historic 7th-century Al-Omari Mosque in Palestine, was heavily damaged by Israeli air strikes in August 2014. Several other mosques were also targeted and destroyed.
Further afield cultural atrocities have occured in the ancient city of Timbuktu in Mali, another UNESCO World Heritage Site where Ansar Dine, another Islamic group with links to ISIL, took over many archaeological and religious sites in 2012. It is reported more than half of the 600-year-old mud brick shrines in the city were destroyed before the secular government, aided by an International force, regained control. One of the best known was the Mausoleum of Sidi Mahmoud.
In the next section we cover what was arguably the most famous non-ISIL attack of recent years - that of the Taliban in Afghanistan on the Bamayan Buddhas.
The Bamayan Buddhas
The Bamayan Valley in Afghanistan once lay on the historic Silk Road trade route between China and the West. During the heyday of the trade from the 2nd century AD, several Buddhist monasteries were constructed in the valley, a centre of worship for monks who took up a hermitic residence in caves in the mountains. And also carved into the sandstone rock of these mountains at an altitude of 2,500m (8,200 ft) were two colossal Buddha statues. Details of the faces and arms and the robes were moulded in mud mixed with straw and wood and then dried and hardened and painted, and it's believed they were originally decorated with jewels and gold. The shorter statue stood 35 m high and the taller one was 53 m (165 ft) high. Both were built during the 6th century AD, and they were the tallest standing Buddha carvings in the world. In the 7th century AD Islamic influences began to dominate in the region, and at various times since then the anachronism of Buddhist statues in a Muslim country have meant that the statues have come under occasional threat. Twice in the 17th and 18th centuries attempts were made to destroy or at least deface the statues with cannon fire. Then in the late 19th century an Afghan king did a better job of destroying the face of the larger statue. Still however the statues stood as relics of a bygone age. Until they were destroyed in March 2001 by the Taliban regime under Mullah Omar. They were regarded as false idols.
Ethnic Cleansing and Other Cultural Desecrations from Around the World
If anyone thinks that callous disregard of cultures dissimilar to their own is something unique to fundamentalist Muslims, that wasn't the case in past centuries and it hasn't been the case in living memory. Again, however, we can only look at a tiny fraction of examples of this cultural vandalism.
In the Communist Soviet Union, there was great irreverence shown towards some historic and beautiful buildings, and especially of course to religious buildings. In Moscow the beautiful Cathedral of Christ the Saviour was built in the 19th century. It was demolished by Stalin in 1931 supposedly to make way for a 'Palace of the Soviets' - a monument to Socialism. The church lacked the truly great age which is the author's main concern on this page, but in the case of a building such as this, bear in mind it is not just the architecture that is lost - it is also the intricate design and the sumptuous artwork of the interior decor, and the significance for the population who revere it.
In China under the Nationalists in the first half of the 20th century, an anti-traditionalist philosophy led to widespread demolition of historic temples. Then when the Nationalists were overthrown by the Communists in 1949, the situation only got much worse with the same anti-traditionalist stance accentuated by a contempt for religious institutions. During the Cultural Revolution, religious sites were ransacked and destroyed. In Tibet, more than 6000 monasteries were destroyed by the occupying Chinese forces. In the city of Taiyuan in North China's Shanxi province, 190 temples were destroyed. If Nationalism was bad, and Communism was worse, commercial pressures for development since the Revolution, coupled with irreverence for the past, has led to desecration on an even greater scale. Many historic buildings have been demolished simply to make way for urban development, roads, reservoirs and irrigation schemes. There are some well intentioned officials today who do try to turn the tide away from destruction, almost literally in the case of Sichuan's 1,700-year-old Zhangfei Temple, relocated when the famous Three Gorges Dam was built. However, a survey by the State Administration for Cultural Heritage reported that over the past three decades 31,000 historical sites have been completely obliterated. Included in that total is a portion of the Great Wall of China.
And upheavals in Eastern Europe have also resulted in their share of cultural vandalism. Historic Ferhadija (Ferhat Pasha) Mosque was one of 16 mosques destroyed in the city of Banja Luka during the Bosnian War of 1992 to 1995. It may have been wartime, but most of these mosques were not caught in crossfire. Their destruction was not strategic and could not be put down to collateral damage. Rather, they were deliberately demolished by the Bosnian Serbs in an act of 'ethnic cleansing'. The nearby Arnaudija Mosque was destroyed on the same day as Ferhadija. Ferhadija and Arnaudija had been constructed by the Ottoman Empire in 1579 and 1594 respectively - just 15 years apart. And they were demolished within 15 minutes of each other in 1993.
After the end of the war over the disputed territory of Kosovo of 1998 to 1999, violence flared again in 2004. This time it was people who identified themselves as Serbs who were on the receiving end of ethnic cleansing. No less than 35 orthodox Serb churches and monasteries were destroyed by mobs of Kosovo Albanians.
And in the early 21st century, the ancient Armenian cemetery of Julfa, an enclave of Azerbaijan, was demolished by the military. Thousands of ornate carved monuments and tombs dating back at least 400 years, and in some cases more than 1000 years, were broken up as part of a campaign of hostility against historic Armenian claims on the territory. (Azerbaijan is a Muslim-majority country but it should be emphasised that this was essentially a territorial dispute - religion is not a major part of the nation's life).
Finally in this section a comment to demonstrate that we in the west are not immune to intolerance either. The following is an insensitive tweet from self-styled evangelical preacher Tony Miano in the aftermath of a recent earthquake in Nepal which killed thousands and destroyed many historic Buddhist temples:
'Praying 4 the lost souls in Nepal. Praying not a single destroyed pagan temple will b rebuilt & the people will repent/receive Christ.'
Granted he was just one twitter idiot, and his words pale into insignificance compared with other actions described on this page. But his opinion of temples and monuments built to reflect other belief systems is similar, and reflects the lack of respect which can blight any nation when intolerance takes hold. Too many care nothing about the past, about other cultures, or about the heritage we leave to our children and grandchildren.
Destruction During War Time
So far we've looked at examples of religion-based desecration in the Middle East. And we have looked at deliberate cultural vandalism elsewhere in the world. But of course just as in Iraq and Syria, much historic architecture has been lost throughout the world as a result of direct shelling and bombing in the numerous wars of the 20th century, and particularly since the dawn of long range artillery fire and sometimes indiscriminate high altitude bombing. Military forces now had the capacity to destroy without having any awareness of exactly what they were destroying. In times of war, opposing armies show little respect for culture. That may seem reasonable - leaders are going to show more concern for the soldiers they command, than the infrastructure of a hostile nation. If a building is standing in the way of an advancing army, then blow it up - churches and temples, art galleries, palaces - it matters not. If a city is of strageic importance, raze it to the ground and if 1000 year old buildings are lost, then so be it.
During the second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese army operated a 'scorched earth' policy, killing millions and destroying many historic buildings, including temples, libraries and museums. The stated reason was to elliminate refuges which might have turned into entrenched positions of resistance by the retreating Chinese forces. But the level of destruction was out of all proportion to the war needs. Just one of the thousands of buildings affected was the Yunju Temple of Cloud Dwelling southwest of Beijing. Construction of the temple dated to 605 AD, but it was heavily damaged by Japanese bombing during the war.
The aerial bombing of the Second World War of course had massive effects on all of the countries involved. Perhaps most famously (apart from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) was the devastation wrought on the historic and beautiful German city of Dresden by 796 British bombers and 431 American bombers in 1944. However, the most controversial WW2 bombardment aimed at a single building was probably the attack on the Abbey of Monte Cassino in Italy. Once described as 'the world's most glorious monastery', on 15th February 1944 the abbey was almost completely destroyed in a series of American-led air raids. The only people killed by the bombing were 230 Italian civilians seeking refuge.
Blanket bombing has caused untold damage to historic sites. In Pyongyang, (now the capital of North Korea) the Buddhist temple of Yongmyongsa had stood for an unknown time, but possibly since the 7th century AD. It was lost during the Korean War.
Mỹ Sơn is a group of ancient Hindu temples in Vietnam. Although little known in the West, the site has been compared in importance to the great historic ruins of S.E Asia such as Angkor Wat (Cambodia) and Ayutthaya (Thailand). A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1999, Mỹ Sơn was built between the 4th and 14th centuries AD. More than 70 temples and other monuments still exist today, most of which are more than 1000 years old. But that is just a fraction of what was standing only 50 years ago - in August 1969, American B52 aircraft blanket-bombed the region destroying the majority of the temples.
The Stari Most in Bosnia is possibly the best known recent example outside of the Middle East of a building lost to conflict. This 16th century Ottoman bridge was shelled by Croatian forces in 1993, reportedly because of its strategic importance.
The One That Got Away
Perhaps the best illustration of the need for a reverential attitude towards our historic culture is the case of a building which thankfully was saved, but which came so very very close to destruction. In July 1944 American soldiers were advancing through Italy, but they had become bogged down in muddy ground and hemmed in by enemy fire. And the accuracy of that fire suggested that the Germans had a vantage point from which to observe the allies. The lookout post believed to have been chosen was a 55m (183 ft) tower built in the 12th century AD. It was the world famous Leaning Tower of Pisa, and American officers had already decided it wan't worth saving any building including this one, if it was harbouring German soldiers and costing American lives. A sergeant who reconnoitered the Tower was on the verge of directing a salvo of shells against it. If he had, then the Leaning Tower would be no more. He hestitated in part because of its beauty, and did not give the command. The generals themselves later decided to spare the Tower. Just a few words from that sergeant and one of the great buildings of history would have been reduced to rubble, and all generations since and to come, would have been denied the opportunity to wonder at it. At the time, blowing it up might well have seemed justified to the troops on the ground and their loved ones back home. Throughout the rest of time, or until gravity naturally determines otherwise, the demise of the Leaning Tower of Pisa would have been seen as a cultural atrocity.
Before concluding this article, we must return to Iraq and Syria, and the World Heritage Centre over which the world of archaeology is at the time of writing holding its breath. Of all the cities and buildings mentioned on this page, none is more widely treasured than Palmyra in Central Syria.This Greco-Roman city reached its zenith as a trading centre in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Extremely well preserved buildings include an intact Roman theatre, several temples, Roman baths and colonnaded streets, the principal one of which is more than one kilometre long.
ISIL gained control of Palmyra in 2015, causing grave concerns for the safety of the site. Soon after this happened, ISIL said that they had no immediate plans to destroy the city, but made no such promises about pagan statues or other relics. Some statues have been destroyed already and in August it was reported that Baal-Shamin - a temple built in 17 AD - had been demolished.
With little confidence, one just hopes that the rest of the site of Palmyra is left alone.
At the top of this article I posed the somewhat contentious suggestion that our architectural heritage perhaps should be valued as much as human life itself. That's not an idea which would find favour with many. It simply isn't politically correct to say that mere bricks and mortar are worth the death of even one person.
And yet during the course of compiling this article, one man who quite clearly felt that such things absolutely could be worth dying for, paid for his passion with his own life. Khaled al-Asaad was Archaeological Director at Palmyra, having spent four decades excavating the ruins, uncovering relics and managing the site for tourism. It was his life's work. Despite officially retiring in 2003, he remained Palmyra's most famous and important advocate.
When it was clear that the city was at imminent risk of falling under ISIL control, Khaled was advised by his friends to leave. But he refused. He insisted on staying to look after his beloved Palmyra regardless of the danger. And when ISIL hunted him down, it is believed they interrogated him about treasures which had been removed from Palmyra. They wanted to either destroy them or sell them on the Black Market. Khaled reputedly refused to tell them anything. So they tortured him. And then they murdered him. They publically beheaded him and strung his body up on 18th August 2015. He was 83 years old. Archaeology isn't often noted for martyrdom, but Khaled al-Asaad's name should be honoured in the profession. He knew how precious architectural heritage really is.
I'm happy to dedicate my page to Khaled al-Asaad, who died 12 days before publication.
World Reaction to Atrocities
Despite widespread pessimism about the future iof mankind, we do actually live in increasingly enlightened times. More and more governments see the need to preserve our heritage, and impassioned individuals work tirelessly to educate the public about priceless history requiring our protection.
And the reaction to atrocities of the kinds mentioned on this page has been commendable. In the case of wanton destruction of historic buildings, there have been very gratifying efforts to replace or restore many of these when peace or civilisation has returned.
Of the buildings featured here, the golden domed al-Askari Mosque has already been repaired in Iraq, a replica of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour has been put up in Moscow, and the Stari Most Bridge was rebuilt in Bosnia. Astonishingly accurate reconstructions have also been carried out in Dresden, including the 18th century Frauenkirche (church) shown here. Finally several nations such as Switzerland and Japan have pledged support for the rebuilding one day of the Bamiyan Buddhas.
These are all good actions to restore our world heritage. One has to say however, that an original work is exactly that - original. Any modern replacement however lovingly constructed, cannot possess the same aura of great age and history. One can admire the design, but one cannot see and touch the actual stones and facades once painstakingly carved as a labour of love by craftsmen many centuries ago. The direct link to the past has been lost. It is so much better to preserve the original, than to have to replace the original.
In recent decades official global organisations have begun to do what they can by way of legislation to protect sites. The Second World War inspired much early change in attitude; the 1945 Nuremburg Trials were the first occasion when individuals were held responsible for cultural atrocities as well as crimes against humanity, as Nazis were convicted of the destruction of property. The United Nations Hague Convention of 1954 and its later amendments, was a key development which prohibited the use of historic monuments and sites for military purposes. Article 53 of the Additional Protocols of 1977, makes illegal 'any acts of hostility directed against the historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples.' There have been moves to strengthen these rules further.
What practical measures can be taken in conjunction with these legal measure?
- Influential and responsible authorites can anticipate sites at risk before the event. Anything that can be removed for safe keeping should be, and if troops are already on the ground, then defending such sites, especially against terrorists, is a legitimate aim.
- In times of war in which archaeological sites are merely 'collateral damage' rather than the main target for either side, defensive military commanders should never use these sites as a shield for their operations, and offensive commanders should ensure in all reasonable circumstances that they are not shelled or bombed.
- It should of course be made clear that in the event of cultural desecration, this would subsequently be treated every bit as much a war crime as the inhumane treatment of prisoners or civilians
Certainly such measures can be influential on governments who wish for international recognition and respect, but it does remain difficult to know quite how the actions of a group such as ISIL can be prevented. Reasoned argument seems futile. The whole mindset of the group is that their belief is true and absolute and no one else can be allowed an alternative viewpoint.
If reasoning is not possible, what about military action? Governments would find it hard to justify intervention to protect culture. Western nations are extremely reluctant these days to commit troops to protect human life in foreign countries, so to expect them to commit troops to protect piles of stone is sadly a bit unrealistic.
In the light of recent events, UNESCO's Committee for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict has made public their condemnation of attacks on cultural heritage. Director-General Irina Bokova has described the destruction of Nimrud as a crime against humanity and a form of cultural cleansing, and on 28th March 2015 she launched the Unite4Heritage initiative described elsewhere on this page. On 28th May, the U.N passed a resolution drawn up by Germany and Iraq and sponsored by 91 U.N members calling for international action against ISIL. Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon has called the destruction of heritage sites a 'war crime'.
However, clearly the U.N and UNESCO can only do so much. And the same also applies to government forces, particularly when it involves operating in foreign lands. So it is incumbent on authorities, media and educational establishments to also encourage the local populace to show interest. This is of great importance in all countries today, including those which are stable democracies. We live in an era of very rapid cultural change. Nations change after wars, but so do populations even in peacetime. In the author's own country, immigration during the 20th century led to a significant population of Afro-Carribeans and Asians. In recent decades many from the Middle East and Eastern Europe have also arrived. Immigrants may contribute great value to society, but may not necessarily have the same immediate attachment to the culture, traditions and history of the country they now inhabit. It is important that all citizens of a nation can unite in a shared respect for the heritage of that country. Only that way will they feel motivated to promote and defend the nation's architectural history.
#Unite4Heritage was launched on 28th March 2015 at the University of Baghdad. The Director General of UNESCO Irina Bokova described it as an attempt to create a global movement 'to protect and safeguard heritage in areas where it is threatened by extremists'.
The aim is to proclaim the importance of heritage for all, to unite the local residents where a heritage site exists, with the worldwide community. One key intention is to reach out to youth. The public are being invited to post photos of favourite heritage sites on to social media using #Unite4Heritage, with personalised explanations as to why they should be preserved. Ms Bokova correctly says:
'Cultural sites have a universal value. They belong to all of us, and must be protected by all.'
Our future is not yet determined. Our present is a fleeting moment in time. It is only our past which can bind us to all of the humanity that has ever existed, the diverse societies and the ordinary people, as well as the great civilisation shaping events of history. We only have two tangible ways to remember these people and these events. The first is the written word - and the written word cannot always be relied upon to tell the complete story (history is written by the victors). The second, more concrete link to the people who lived long ago are the buildings, the sculptures and the wall carvings which have survived and come down to us over the millenia.
Every time a piece of history is lost to us, our culture is diminished. Every time an ancient building is destroyed, the last bond with a human being who lived and worked on it hundreds or thousands of years ago is gone.
We have seen in this essay how throughout history, architecture has been under attack. The motivation has often been religious intolerance. There has also been non-religious ideology - attempts by a new regime to impose their own philosophy on a society. War has had a devastating effect, in the destruction of fortresses, and in the indiscriminate bombings of cities. Finally there is wanton neglect.
What happened in the past cannot be undone. Attention must now be focused on the pesent and future, and the very real threats which still exist. One must hope that the situation in Iraq and Syria eventually resolves satisfactorily. But whatever happens, one hopes the world learns its lesson and such threats are never again allowed to result in wholesale destruction of our world heritage.
Postscript Palmyra - 24th October 2016
In March 2016, Palmyra was liberated by the Syrian army. Initial surveys indicate that the destruction by ISIL has been selective. The historic Temple of Bel and Temple of Baal-Shamin have both been reduced to rubble. So has the triumphal arch. Other sites have been damaged, and statues and sculptures in the Palmyra Museum have been broken up. Mercifully the magnificent Roman theatre has been spared - perhaps because ISIL wanted to use it as a setting for their sordid public executions. The Great Colonnade (an avenue of Roman pillars) and the agora (market place) have also survived largely intact. Syria's Director of Antiquities has pledged to reconstruct the demolished buildings using the rubble still at the site. I hope that one day, Palmyra will be restored as closely as possible to its pre-2014 status. The state of Palmyra today can be guaged by the 'before and after' photos in the article linked to below:
All My Other Pages ...
I have written articles on many subjects including science and history, politics and philosophy, film reviews and travel guides, as well as poems and stories. All can be accessed by clicking on my name at the top of this page
Please feel free to quote limited text from this article on condition that an active link back to this page is included
Amendments to this Page:
My aim is for this article to be accurate. However there are issues with Internet research on this subject:
1) Sites are often known by more than one name, either due to name changes over time, or due to the difficulty of translating Arabic script to the alpabet of Western Europe and America.
2) The extreme inaccessibility of the ISIL controlled region today makes it difficult to verify news reports, or the extent of damage inflicted.
3) Events at the time of publication are changing rapidly, and some information inevitably will not remain up to date.
If informed sources can help improve factual accuracy, please e-mail me.
References - Articles About Specific Architectural Sites
- ISIS Destroys Jonah's Tomb - Huffington Post
- ISIS Destroys the Armenian Memorial Church - conflict antiquities
- Tell Brak - mcdonald.cam
- Mosul travel guide - Wikitravel
- Hatra - UNESCO
- Medina: Saudis take a bulldozer to Islam's history - The Independent
- The 7 Mosques - Wordpress.com
- Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia - Wikipedia
- Destruction of Sufi Shrines - The Muslim 500
- The Old City of Sana'a - UNESCO
- Gao and Timbuktu - Wikipedia
- Buddhas of Bamiyan - Wikipedia
- China loses thousands of historic sites - The Guardian
- Embers (Dresden) - The New Yorker
- Why I spared the Leaning Tower of Pisa - The Guardian
- Palmyra - Wikipedia
References - Articles About Architectural Destruction
- Christian Destruction of Pagan Culture - Huffington Post
- Aniconism in Islam - Wikipedia
- Understanding ISIS and the History of Wahhabism - The WorldPost
- The Destruction of the Middle East - Gatestone Institute
- Destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL - Wikipedia
- 10 historical sites destroyed by ISIS - CBC Radio
- A Look At Some Of The Ancient Sites Destroyed By ISIS And The Syrian Civil War - Buzz
- 34 Lost Cities Forgotten by Time – Touropia Travel Experts
- 20 precious monuments destroyed by war - CNN.com
- 10 Historical And Cultural Sites Destroyed By War - Listverse
- Cultural treasures lost in wars
- Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property - Wikipedia
- Unite4Heritage - U.N.Org
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