ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Historical Facts About English Gothic Architecture

Updated on April 15, 2013
Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey | Source

From France the new style spread in all directions. Each country created its own version of Gothic architecture. English Gothic developed almost as early as French, but the English cathedral is quite different in conception. During the Early English period (1150–1250), although the Gothic pointed arch was adopted, the heavy walls of the Romanesque tend to linger on. These were abandoned in the so-called Decorated period (1250–1350) when the small lancet windows of the Early English style were replaced with broad, richly traceried openings, which in turn gave way in the Perpendicular period (1350–1500) to windows latticed with vertical mullions and horizontal transoms.

Although the English used the basic French structure of membered piers, buttresses, and ribbed vaults, they did not attempt the daring height of the French cathedrals. The vaults of Westminster Abbey rise about 100 feet (30 meters), but this is the most French of the English churches, rebuilt by the Francophile king, Henry III, between 1245 and 1260. Usually the vaults of the English cathedrals are about 80 feet (24 meters) high, half the height of those of Beauvais. Because this lower vaulting made the buttress problem less acute, flying buttresses are comparatively rare in English Gothic churches.

In most respects, Canterbury Cathedral is characteristic of the English Gothic style. In addition to a central transept, it has a second transept farther east, producing an archiepiscopal cross plan. The additional transept provides space for more altars. Twin towers flank the facade, as at Notre Dame, but the tower over the central transept—"Bell Harry," as it is called at Canterbury—overtops them. In the French cathedral, the exterior focus is at the west end; in England it is at the center. The French cathedral rises from the middle of the town with houses and shops close around it. But the English cathedral is set off within its own lawns and trees, visible from all angles, and this fact makes the emphasis on the central tower seem logical.

Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral | Source

The reason for this characteristic difference between the French and the English Gothic styles is that most of the English cathedrals were monasteries (minsters), and so were set within the monastic grounds. For the same reason there is usually a cloister, and often other monastic buildings, attached to the English church. Generally there is a chapter house for meetings, and, in the church proper, choir screens to separate the part of the building intended primarily for the monks from those areas in which the laity normally worshiped. These screens, which often break the vista down the length of the English minsters, emphasize the multiple functions of the building. All this tends to give to the English churches a less dramatic, perhaps less public character than the French cathedrals. Canterbury seems almost private, even intimate, in comparison to the grandeur of Chartres or of Notre Dame.

In one respect, Canterbury minster is not typically English. It preserves the rounded apse, perhaps because that part was designed by a French architect, William of Sens, in the 12th century. During the Norman period, English churches regularly had apses. In the Gothic period, a square east end replaced the apse and its radiating chapels, as can be seen in Lincoln minster. Why the English made this change is not known. Conceivably, the English monks felt the necessity of proper orientation not merely of the church as a whole, but of each chapel. Radial chapels cannot be correctly oriented, but chapels on the eastern sides of the transepts, or at the ends of aisles in a square east end, are correct in this matter. There is, however, no proof of this hypothesis.

In English Gothic churches the central chapel of the east end is commonly dedicated to the Virgin, and is known as the Lady Chapel. As the Middle Ages progressed, devotion to the Virgin grew steadily until she was almost as much beloved by the people as Christ himself. Services in her honor grew more and more elaborate and were sung by the full choir. In Gloucester Cathedral the Lady Chapel was enlarged so much that it forms a nearly independent church.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)