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What is a Pook Turtle?
The Design Team
At the onset of the Civil War, James Buchanon Eads, a civil engineer, ship builder, and sunken vessel salvager, offered the Union Army a salvageable submarine for restructure into a serviceable warship.
Eads made mention of one important fact - due to a multiple water-tight division within the hull of his ship the vessel could sustain major damage without sinking.
Little did he know at the time, this crucial piece of information destined he and warship designer Samuel Pook to a fulfilling contract, supplying the Union Army with a fleet of ironclad ships, which would eventually play an important role in the eventual defeat of the Confederate Army.
At the beginning of the Civil War, a fleet of ironclad ships were put into service along the Mississippi River. These city-class gunboats known as "Eads gunboats" or better yet, "Pook Turtles" were placed at main Southern ports and used by the federal war department in their attempt to remove any source of income or supplies from enemy territory.
The Union Agenda
By confiscating income and supplies, and blockading entry points, the Lincoln Administration could starve the enemy, isolate the western sympathizing states, and slowly cinch its grasp on all Confederate fortifications.
Hailed as a brilliant strategy, the Anaconda Plan, met its first challenge with the recruitment of civil engineer and salvager, James Buchanon Eads and warship designer, James Pook who already worked for the war department.
With five sawmills, iron rolling mills and foundries, the designing pair were able to build a city-class fleet of warships. Named after major cities along western rivers, and costing over $100,000 each, the fleet was tactically sound and later recognized as top-notch maritime feats.
"The United States has never been afraid of a challenge. In times of crisis, it is American innovation and ingenuity that has forged the path to progress and prosperity." ~ Diana Degette
Operation Pook Turtle
Early during the war, the ironclad gunboats were used by the Federal government in capturing Fort Henry, Fort Donaldson, and Fort Pillow, Memphis and Vicksburg.
The very first ironclad warship witnessed in battle was on October 12, 1861. During the Battle of the Head Passes, the Confederate gunboat, the Manassas operated off the shore of the Mississippi River was part of a small river defense fleet, which launched a surprise attack on the New Orleans blockade defenses.
In the years to come, the Union followed suit in their own similar operations. For the most part, the use of the Pook Turtle was successful. However, there were a few backlashes. On December 11th, 1862, during the blockade of Vicksburg, the Cairo met its end when it was sunk by enemy mines, and a year later, the St. Louis went down due to a torpedo attack.
The ironclad warship of the Mississippi River was equipped with superior armament. Every vessel had its own identity; however, because of uniformity, the vessels were recognized by individual color bands on the smokestacks.
Each gunboat weighed 512 tons and mantled with 2.5-inch-thick plated iron armor walls. At 175 feet long and 51.5 feet wide, these massive round-nosed, flat-bottomed vessels were maneuvered by a stern paddle wheel, and powered by coal.
The War's Long-Term Contribution
Both the Union and Confederate Navies were instrumental in changing the course of naval warfare. Gone were the days of wooden ship yore, and thus, the iron-plated behemoths took over, and set the standard for future design. By as late as 1864, the last of the wooden-ship designs became obsolete, and soon around the world.
- Wikipedia. October 18, 2013. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pook_Turtles >
- Ironclads and Blockade Runners of the American Civil War. Union Riverine Ironclads <http://users.wowway.com/~jenkins/ironclads/unionriver.htm>
- American Civil War Story. Ironclad Warships. <http://www.americancivilwarstory.com/ironclad-warship.html>
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