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The History in English Place and Street Names
"Rye, East Sussex" by Matt Banks
Place Names- Signposts To History
Some people, especially children, think that history is simply dates, battles, kings and queens, but history is far more than that. It is all around us, in our local areas, in the buildings, the businesses, shops and streets where we live. Street, district, town, city and area names can tell much about the history of the country and much about the history of the places where we live and work.
A Place Name Can Reveal A Hidden Story
Bexhill on Sea, in Sussex, UK, for example, the name Bexhill comes from Old English, byxe meaning a box tree or thicket, so Bexhill means a box tree or thicket on a hill. The modern town gives no indication of its rural beginnings. Epsom, in Surrey, was originally Ebbes Homestead, the old English hamm meant a cultivated land hemmed in by water or marsh. Epsom today is a built up and very busy dormitory suburb of London, would have thought that it was once a homestead or farm?
Tracing The History Of English Settlements
One can easily trace the history of any English settlement through its name, for example the suffix or prefix cester chester, port, street strat in the name of a city, town or village indicate Roman settlements. The prefixes and suffixes Aber, baille, ben, cair, pen and tre, indicate older Celtic origins. Tre and Pen are particularly prevalent in Cornish place names such as Penrhyn, and Tregaron. Ham, ford, cot, ton, and hurst indicate Anglo Saxon settlements. By, ey, and with indicate Viking settlements. French names including suffixes and prefixes such as beau and mont indicate Norman settlements.
Street Names And History
The names of streets too can give clues to their history. Roads called Shambles are often the area of the town where butchers shops grouped together. Many town street names derive from the trades which were carried out in them in Medieval times. Other street names may derive from their use. Poultry lane may have been where the poultry market originally stood, or where the poulterers’ shops were located in the town or it may have been the lane that farmers drove their birds to market for hundreds of years. There are many streets called Cockpit Lane and this indicates that an arena for cockfighting, a popular interest in the past, now fortunately illegal throughout the United Kingdom, once stood there
Aldgate in London was simply the oldest city gate. The Strand may seem strange, until you realize that the old word for a beach was strand. Marble Arch is self-explanatory. Some London streets derive their names from the people who lived there such as Albemarle Street. Road names in other places also indicate their history, Gander Green Lane, in Cheam Surrey, derives its name from the fact that it was once a green lane or path along which geese were driven to market in London.
Changing Place Names Losing History
Sometimes residents ask for street names to be changed because they perceive the name to be rude or because they do not like it. Residents in Bladder Lane asked for their street name to be changed to Boniface Lane, a perfectly reasonable request you might think. until you realise that the street was originally called after the bladderwort plant, not a bladder. Brewery Lane was changed to University Close after the college on the street complained to the council. However, changing street names risks losing their character and history and breaks our links with the past.