ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

How Did The Grand Unified Theory and Inflation Save Cosmology?

Updated on April 8, 2019
1701TheOriginal profile image

Leonard Kelley holds a bachelor's in physics with a minor in mathematics. He loves the academic world and strives to constantly explore it.

Source

The Drive for the Grand Unified Theory Leads to Inflation

One of the most successful developments in all of science is the Standard Model for particle physics, but it has some issues. For one, over 19 parameters are needed in the equations governing them. Another sore point is how gravity is not explained at all, for it has no particle but as we currently understand it is just a result of mass interacting with space time. Gravity is unlike the other three forces in this regard, for they can be tied together while gravity has thus far remained elusive. But a step in the direction of figuring it out would be the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) (Kaku 83-4).

Though this, quarks and leptons would be the same type of object, and the force carriers (W/Z Bosons, gluons, and photons) as also some form of one another, all of this being the case in the distant past when temperatures were high enough to permit this symmetry. Note that this is only for 3 of the 4 forces, with gravity being the odd man out still. But with GUT it may be possible to see how gravity fits into this, for the early Universe went through a phase transition after the Big Bang that broke the 4 forces from being in one just 10-30 seconds post Big Bang and it had the high temperatures needed for GUT to be applicable. That phase transition caused a release of energy into what was at the time the lowest energy state possible: a true vacuum. Anyone willing to bet a false one exists too? It does, and it was the state of the Universe when the 3 particle-based forces (and therefore GUT) were as one. As the transition from false to true vacuum occurred and energy was released, Alan Guth realized that this would drive the Universe to expand exponentially. This became known as inflation, and through the exploration of this idea several universal problems would be resolved (Kaku 84-5, Krauss 64-5).

Monopole problem.
Monopole problem. | Source

The Monopole Problem

One of the implications that GUT entails is that the Universe should be full of monopole magnets, where only a north or a south pole should exist. As you know from experience, none have been found but maybe that’s because they are elsewhere in the Universe. But no searches of the sky have turned them up. Inflation can fix this though, for as the Universe inflated and went from a false vacuum to a true vacuum, the monopoles were spread out to the point of making their detection nearly impossible (86).

Flatness Problem.
Flatness Problem. | Source

The Flatness/Fine Tuning Problem

The shape of spacetime is a critical factor to the growth of the Universe. It can impact the rate of growth and the properties we see around us. The critical density of the Universe to make it flat (which is what observations show it to be) should be 1, but relativity says it should go to 0 and either be a saddle-point or a spherical shape. A lot of time has passed since the Big Bang, so the likelihood of this being a normal discrepancy is low. In fact, if the flatness we see today is real, then the critical density of the Universe had to be 1.00000000000000 just 1 second after the Big Bang. That is simply amazing and seems to imply some fine tuning of our Universe, but it is actually a natural consequence of inflation. The sudden expansion of the Universe would flatten out the shape of the Universe, eliminating the need for some crazy explanation (Kaku 87, Krauss 61).

The Horizon Problem

Related to the issue of flatness is the homogenous nature of the Universe. On large scales, different portions of the Universe are practically the same in structure and the cosmic microwave background (a relic of the early Universe) shows a consistent temperature with deviations less than a thousandth of a degree. But a sneaky problem exists here, for the Universe is limited in terms of information transference. Nothing in space time can travel faster than the speed of light, so how do these vast regions of the Universe look so similar if they are too far apart for such commonality to arise? Inflation offers a way, for it cause that spacetime to accelerate faster than the speed of light, and nothing is wrong with that. The physical space itself can move at any speed but things inside it cannot go beyond the speed of light. And so, the different regions were much closer in the past, were flattened out and made rather uniform as inflation occurred (Kaku 88, Krauss 61).

More problems were resolved by this merging of GUT and inflation, and who knows what else it may uncover…

Works Cited

Kaku, Michio. Parallel Worlds. Doubleday, New York 2005. 83-8. Print.

Krauss, Laurence M. “A Beacon from The Big Bang.” Scientific American Oct. 2014: 61, 64-5. Print.

© 2019 Leonard Kelley

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)