ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

TBI Patients : Recovery For Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation

Updated on April 29, 2014
neerajv95 profile image

Hi there! Welcome to my profile and hubs; I hope you find them interesting and useful.

TBI : Brain Injury.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is damage to the brain.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is damage to the brain. | Source

Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program

TBI : Brain Injury Basics from a guy.
TBI : Brain Injury Basics from a guy. | Source
Brain Anatomy from the Brain Injury
Brain Anatomy from the Brain Injury | Source
Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide - Brain Function
Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide - Brain Function | Source
Traumatic Brain Injury - Interactive Brain.
Traumatic Brain Injury - Interactive Brain. | Source
Traumatic Brain Injury A to Z - Interactive Brain.
Traumatic Brain Injury A to Z - Interactive Brain. | Source

Rehabilitation of Brian Injury

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is damage to the brain as a result of an external force to the brain and it is associated with change in consciousness that can cause cognitive, physical and psychosocial functional disorders. This is a typical example of multiple disability in the adult and poses a challenge to the rehabilitation team because of the myriad problems the patient presents with. This article gives a brief overview about the condition delving into much detail.

The temporary or permanent damage to the internal structures of the brain present as:

  • Motor disturbance
  • Sensory disturbance
  • Cranial never involvement

Mild head injury is manifested by any one or more of the following:

1- Any focal neurologic deficits, which may or may not be persistent.

2- Any period of loss of consciousness.

3- Any alteration in mental state immediately after the accident.

4- Admission in a hospital for less than 48 hours.

Secondary Disability (other organ failure due to prolonged immobilization) The person with traumatic brain injury could have suffered from multiple injuries as in needed. Multiple system failure may be primary in this case, but also may be secondary due to the patient being confined to bed for a long time, in an unconscious or semi-conscious state.

Assessment Scales : Assessment is generally done clinically at the bedside on the guideline given above but when these parameters have to be quantified, for example, the level of coma, the independence level; it is advisable to use standardized scales.

Rancho Los Amigos Scale

The patient may be in coma and he is assessed according to the Rancho los Amigos Scale. This universally recognized scale was developed for used in the planning of treatment, monitoring the recovery, and classifying outcome level in brain injury. It is an easy and simple test to perform for evaluation cognition of the patients and is a validated test. Not only does it given a status on the patient but it can also follow-up and compare between patients. There are 8 classification levels.

5 Year Girl After Brain Injury

TBI : Fatigue After Brain Injury
TBI : Fatigue After Brain Injury | Source

Disability Scale (DRS)

Category
Item
Instruction
Arousability, Awareness And Responsivity.
Eye Opening
0= spontaneous
 
 
1 = to speech
 
 
2= to pain

TBI & Head Injury Treatment.

Occupational Therapy Treatment Programs for Traumatic Brain Injury
Occupational Therapy Treatment Programs for Traumatic Brain Injury | Source
Check out this infographic to learn more about the injury suffered.
Check out this infographic to learn more about the injury suffered. | Source

Overview of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

No Response: The patient does not respond to environmental stimuli such as sound, sights, touch or movement.

Generalized Response: There will be a delayed response to environment, which may be non specific, like chewing, sucking, breathing faster, moaning or moving some part of the body. Sweating or increased blood pressure may occur as part of an overall systemic response.

Localized Response: The patient is awake on and off during the day, moves body more and recognize people around him. He may follow simple instructions like ‘open your mouth’ but responds inconsistently or incoherently to simple question.

Confused-Agitated: The patient becomes very confused or agitated, reacting to what he sees hear or feels by lashing out, shouting, using abusive language, or tossing about. He cannot follow directions, cooperate with the care giver, or concentrate even for a few second.

Confused-Inappropriate, Non-Agitated: This confused patient is less agitated than stage 4, and is not oriented to time or place. His memory and concentration are poor. He follows commands slowly and is still fully dependent for his ADLs. He may get obsessed on an idea or activity (perseveration) and needs help to switch to the next part of the activity.

Confused-Appropriate: This patient is still confused in memory and thought processes but can remember some snatches from a conversation. He can be persuaded to follow a certain routine, but will get confused and upset if it is changed. He is more oriented to time and place but cannot do multitasking, that is many tasks at a time.

Automatic-Appropriate: This person can follow his routine, take care of himself and is independent in most self care activities. However he is still confined to a routine and any change might irritate him. Long range planning or strategies still elude him, and he gets flustered in crowded surroundings. He is incapable of hand line an emergency.

Purposeful-Appropriate: In this stage the person is more adaptable, and is more aware of his loss of memory. He starts to compensate for his deficits and does not flounder in stressful situation. However when a new challenge presents itself he may show poor judgement.

Disability Rating Scale DRS

This scale though developed for brain injury, is used for other assessment program. There are 8 items in 4 categories; arousal and awareness; cognitive ability to handle self-care functions; physical dependence and psychosocial adaptability. DRS scores range from 0 to 30; a lower score indicates a lower level of disability, and a higher score obviously means more independence.

Treatment

The treatment has been dealt with as:

  • Medical treatment
  • Surgical treatment
  • Rehabilitation

Please Comment

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • neerajv95 profile imageAUTHOR

      Neeraj Kr 

      4 years ago from Jaipur, India

      I respected your comment & Thanks for comment rajesh jj.

    • profile image

      Rajesh Kumar 

      4 years ago

      Thanks for sharing information on hubpage ..

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)