ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Education and Science»
  • Linguistics»
  • English as a Foreign or Second Language

How a non Native English Speaker learns English

Updated on September 14, 2015

How a non Native English Speaker learns English

This dialogical linguistics analyzing project has a great purpose to evaluate the speaking skill of the child who is just acquiring English as a second language user in a non native English speaking country like Maldives. Properties of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics are extremely important to articulate and speak English language fairly. Basically, it seems very problematic to those children who are non native English speakers or who learn English as a second language form. The aim of this logical paper is to express the ways of pronouncing English contextually and perfectly. The purpose of this dialogical linguistics evaluation job is to make clear the problematic English sound systems in order to pronounce all the alphabets very passably and smartly before the audiences. The logical arrangement of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics in this paper is the successful embodiment of first-rated English speaking skill for the children in second language acquiring country.

This Phonetics refers to the ways speech sounds are produced while phonology refers to the logical arrangement of the produced speech sounds in a language to form a higher unit or a unit beyond the phoneme. The production of speech sounds and their mechanism as well as their logical sequencing may vary from one language to another. Morphology is the analysis of a language’s morphemes and other linguistics units, such as stress, intonation, parts of speech, root words, affixes and so on which affect the child to pronounce the alphabet or vowel and consonant sound. Moreover, syntax is the study of sentence structures and constructions in particular languages. It has vital value to evaluate the speaking skill of the children. Pragmatics embodied in the studies of the paths in which context contributes to meaning very smoothly. Actually, the variation of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics may be of different levels, length and different degrees of language. Depending on the, length, nature, levels and degrees of variation, speaking skill of English language of the child seems very difficult.

Evaluation of speaking skills on the basis of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics:

1.1. The first analytical linguistics impression has been noticed in line 1.

Line 1 Ahmed: Yes I do.

If we analyze this dialogical “do” which indicates the strong agreement. IPA symbols are using to describe the exact position and expression of pronunciation. The strong form of “do” is [duː] which is expressed as verb in this line.[d] is a plosive alveolar sound. Here the sound [d] is not pronounced properly or without barrier with the help of airstream mechanism. It noticed that air is not blocking completely while producing [d] sound. When pronounced properly the sound [d] should block the air flow for a movement before production of plosives. The same way he has a problem with [t], as explained above. Even, there is no use of nasal cavity her to pronounce this [d] and [t] sounds. From the above two sounds, it is understood the child has pronunciation difficulties with consonants especially the sounds with major abstraction in the mouth cavity.

1.2. Secondly the sound [g], in line 5.

2. A: Can you guess?

When producing the sound [g], the oral cavity is not opened widely and it creates the air pressure two jaws of mouth. Even the tongue is not active highly.[g] is a plosive velar sound. Through the IPA symbol, we can get [dʒiː]. It is expressing as verb and its expression is long. The exact pronunciation of this word is [ɡes]. The cross-cultural environment, language shocks act as a barrier of non native English user and for this reason a 10 years little boy of non native English speaker falls in problem to pronunciation.

1.3. The sound [c], in line 7.

3. A: No, not correct.

When we pronounce the sound [c], some briers happened in the oral cavity to release. Its pronunciation is short. In this line is act as an adjective. It is called plosive palatal sound. The right pronunciation of the word “correct” is kəˈrekt which is difficult to pronounce this word at the age of 10. It is like correct [kəˈlekt].

1.4. The sound [ p] in the line 9.

A: No, not correct. I don’t have a pet cat.

The sound [p] is a plosive and bilabial. It is easier than other some sounds to the children. Actually, when a child born and learn to pronounce, she/he learns to pronounce this type of sounds like [b], [t], [k]. The right pronunciation of the word “pet” is [pet ]. There is long expression here. It is act in this line or dialogue as noun. There is a great similarity with the net. Even, the word “cat” is pronounced as kæt in which the sound [a] is long. This type of word seems easy to the child.

1.5. The sound [ f] in the line 11.

A: I don’t have a pet fish.

When producing the sound [f], the tongue is not raised to the hard palate. It is labia-dental fricative sound. Furthermore, phonemes in a word [fɪʃ. here the length of pronunciation is not long. it is like the word “dish” [dɪʃ]. to learn pragmatics, it is also difficult.

1.6. The sound [ t] in the line 13.

A: You cannot guess. Can I tell you?

The sound [t] is a plosive alveolar. It is expressed fluently. The sound of the world “tell” is pronouncing in long way with help of morpheme. The exact way of this word is [toʊld].

1.7. The sound [ m] in the line 17.

A: No, I don’t have a monkey. Why you told monkey?

The word “monkey” is very tough to pronounce for the 10 years learners in non native English speaking country. The sound [m] is called bilabial nasal. This sound is produced through the nasal cavity. The all the air is passes with the help of nose. The exact pronunciation of this word is [ˈmʌŋki]. Even, the syntax is difficult for non native English users.

1.8. The sound [ n] in the line 25.

A: The name is Winnie.

The sound [n] has a great similarity with the sound [m]. [n] is a nasal sound which is pronounced through nasal cavity. The air stream mechanism is acts through the nose. All the air passes through the nasal cavity. The right pronunciation of the word “name” is [neɪm]. The expression is highly and acts as noun in this line.

2.1. The sound [ f] in the line 33.

A: I like all types of foods.

The sound[f] is a labia dental fricative sound. Here, phonemes in a word like food, /fu:d/, when pronouncing /long-u/, is not produced. The local people when they pronounce the words like food, wood, the long u part is not long enough to produce the sound /fu:d/ etc.

3.1. The sound [ f] in the line 50.

A: Because I will not be able to go those countries in my life.

When the sound [l] is pronounced the tongue is raised in our teeth rise. The exact pronunciation of this word is [laɪf]. It is oral sound. It is lateral approximant sound. As a second language user, it very hard to pronounce.

Mostly, we can say that this experimental paper is very helpful to the child who is learning English. It will be very much helpful to demolish the barrier to learn English as a second language in any non native English speaking countries.


Phonology is an integral branch of linguistics which studies the speech sounds in any language of the world. The typical accents that many students of non native English speaking countries have are due to differences between the phonological method of their own tongue and that of English. From birth, and possibly before, we learn to recognize and produce the distinctive sounds of our own language. We do not need to give any thought to how to have the lips, tongue, teeth, etc. working together to produce the desired sounds. The physical structures of parts of the sound system are adapted to produce native-language sounds. Actually, when the native English speakers pronounce the sound or phonemes like “bad”, “leave”, “while”, it seems sounds good but when a learners from non native English speaking countries like Maldives, India, Pakistan, Nepal, it will be pronounced in different ways like “bet”
“leaf”, “vile”.

For example, the problems that Maldives, India, Pakistan, Nepal have with some English words are shown as follows:

English word pronounced by native speakers like the UK

Faulty non native speakers’ pronunciation like Maldives.

The imperfect pronunciations publicized in this mode are approximations. For example, a student of 10 years pronounces the English word bad may tend towards the way a native English speaker would say bet. A native speaker however would usually speak the word bet with a harder, more muscularly articulated final t sound (alveolar plosive) than a student of Maldives mispronouncing the word bad.


Morphology is the scientific study and description of how the words are formed in language. In linguistics it is the analysis and description of the structure of a given language’s morphemes and other linguistic units, such as affixes, words, parts of speech, intonation, stress and implied context. Morphological conditions are very problematic to the non native speakers in this world. To maintain the affixes, words, parts of speech, intonation, stress and implied context for speaking English are very difficult to the L2 learners.

For example, “contribution” is a word where contribute is main word and “tion” is affixes which should be known to non native English speaks in order to speak English clearly and smoothly. Even when, we speak any sentence, we should maintain the context on the basis of that sentence by creating stress and intonation. It is very hard for the L2 learners like Maldives, India, Pakistan, and Nepal. This paper will have to be helpful for the students of 10 years old to learn English in Maldives. Moreover, if a learner or speaker does not maintain the rules of morphology very perfectly, the context will be changed. So, the scientific study of morphology is very important in non native speaking countries like Maldives.


Syntax is the systematic study of sentence structure. It is an inseparable part of linguistic. Actually, the term syntax is used to refer directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any language. It maintains the logical arrangement of words in sentence. Syntax is a grammar of language which governs the sentence in any language very clearly. There is a great similarity between diction and syntax in any language of the world. Syntax and diction are intimately related. Diction refers to the selection of vocabularies in a particular condition while syntax resolves how the elected words are used to shape a sentence. It is very tough to maintain the rules of syntax in second language acquiring countries like Maldives. Most of the time a learner from non native English speaking countries does not catch the rules of syntax as the complexity of syntax. It can maintain the beauty of sentence. The tone and mode of language are highly related to this syntax. It helps the writers to create interest in their writings like different literary terms. Actually it is very tough at the age of 10 in non native speaking countries.


Semantics is the scientific study of meaning. Semantics is the systematic learning of the meaning of linguistic language. The language can be a normal tongue, such as English. In fact, semantics is one of the major branches of modern linguistics. Meaning in natural languages is mainly studied by linguists. Semantics is the study of the meaning of language. It also deals with varieties and changes in the meaning of words, phrases, sentences and text. If a learner of a non native English speaking country does not know the exact criteria of semantics, she/he will have fall in danger. The basic study of semantics is oriented to the examination of the meaning of signs, and the study of relations between different linguistic units and compounds: synonymy, antonym, hyponymy, hyponymy, metonymy, metonymy, and homonymy. So, to speak in English everybody of non native countries should know the organized rules of semantics very purely. Linguistic semantics is the study of sense that is used for considerate human being expression throughout language. In fact, when a student of 10 years old wants to learn English, she/he will hall in language shock. So, this experimental parer must be helpful for them who are attempts to learn English language.


Pragmatics is an important branch of linguistics which can make a relationship between meaning and context. To maintain the contextual meaning, pragmatics is very suitable in the world of linguistics. It explains how language users are capable to triumph over apparent status, since sense or meaning relies on the manner, place, time etc. Pragmatics determines the vital field in linguistics and semiotics and it studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. Actually, for the age of ten in any non native speaking country, it is very tough to know the value of pragmatics. It is a great and vast shock for the students of 10 years in Maldives to know the exact meaning and rules of pragmatics.


Finegan, Edward (2008). Language: Its Structure and Use, 5th edition. Thomson Wadsworth.

Green, G. (1989). Pragmatics and Natural Language Understanding, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Grice, H. P. (1975). 'Logic and Conversation', in Cole, P. & Morgan, J. (eds.) Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts, New York: Academic Press.

Jones, D. 1993. An Outline of English Phonetics. Ninth Edition. Kalyani Publishers, New.
Kasper, G. & Schmidt, R. (1996). Developmental issues in interlanguage pragmatics, in Studies of Second Language Acquisition, vol. 18, pp149~169.

Kasper, G. & Blum-Kulka, S. (eds.) (1993) Interlanguage Pragmatics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Delhi, 23 pp. McWhorter, John (2004). The Story of Human Language. The Teaching Company.

O’Grady and Archibald (2008). Contemporary Linguistic Analysis: An Introduction, 6thedition. Pearson Longman. .

Roach, P. 1997. English Phonetics and Phonology. 2nd edition. CUP, Cambridge, 10 pp.

Shaw, R. 1996. Sadharan Bhasavijnan O Bangla Bhasa. Pustak Bipani, Calcutta.

Verma, S.K. and Krishnaswamy, N. 1997. Modern Linguistics: An Introduction. OUP, New Delhi, 34 pp.

Yule, George (2010). The Study of Language, 4th edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

How a non Native English Speaker learns English


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.