Humid Mesothermal and Humid Microthermal Climate
Humid Mesothermal Climate
This is the climate typical of the equator-ward parts of the temperate regions where the temperatures generally do not fall very low and they remain around 10 deg. C. This climate has three major sub types, the Mediterranean, the China type and the West European type.
The Mediterranean type of climate is characterized by a dry summer and humid winter. The summer temperatures are fairly high, i.e. around 25 deg. C. The typical vegetation of these regions is constituted by the plants which can withstand a long dry summer season and they have thick barks and long roots. Olives, grapevine and the citrus family fruits are the chief products of these regions and they are known for grain farming also. This type of climate occurs on the western margins of the continents in the latitudes between 30 and 45 deg. north and south latitudes. The areas around the Mediterranean Sea, central region of Chile, southern tip of South Africa and southwestern part of Australia are the chief regions of this climate.
China type of climate is characterized by warm summers and cool winters, the average temperature being around 19 deg. C. This type of climate is experienced in the eastern parts of the continents in the same latitudes in which the Mediterranean type of climate is found. The rainfall is available throughout the year and the major areas of this type of climate are in China, Argentina, south eastern part of USA and eastern coastal region of Australia.
The typical area of the west European type of climate is the coastal region of western Europe. This region extends between the 30 deg and 60 deg. latitude and includes western Europe, parts of North America, South America and south eastern coastal region of Australia. The summers are cool and the winters are cold here and the winter temperatures go below 10 deg. C. However, there is a distinct marine influence on the climate in these regions and the temperature even in winters remains slightly higher than the normal temperature of these latitudes. Rainfall occurs throughout the year but it is heavier in the winter season. Invasions of the cold polar air masses are common in these latitudes and temperate cyclones provide much of the precipitation.
Humid Microthermal Climate
This climate is also known as the taiga type of climate, so named after the type of forests growing there. This type of climate is experienced in two large belts one each in North America and Eurasia. Most of the Siberian region and the high latitude areas of USA and Canada have this type of climate which has a cool summer and cold winter. The summer temperature sometimes goes higher than 10 deg. C. but the temperatures in the winter season go below the freezing point and remain so for eight months. The total annual precipitation is low, generally below 50 cm. but on account of the low temperatures this is enough to support the coniferous forests. These forests are the most important source of the softwoods and the fur bearing animals. Fur farming has now a days become one of the important activities, besides lumbering, in these regions.