ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Education and Science»
  • Linguistics

Hymes SPEAKING Sociolinguistic Model

Updated on February 12, 2017

What Is The SPEAKING Model?

The SPEAKING tool is a sociolinguistic model to understand a communicative event. The creator of this tool, Dell Hymes, defined a communicative event as a block where communicative acts interact to meet a specific outcome. Communicative acts are utterances and body language, whereas communicative events are complete units with a single goal such as a greeting, a speech, a song in a concert or a chapter in a book.

This tool is used by the student of a communicative event to analyze the language in a social context, where groups share linguistic norms to understand the texts. In this sense, the groups are speech communities, which members understand the meaning of words and situations in a similar way. SPEAKING is an acronym that stands for:

  • Setting
  • Participants
  • Ends
  • Acts sequence
  • Key
  • Instrumentalities
  • Norms
  • Genre

Setting refers to the place and time where a communicative event takes place including the pertaining sociocultural implications. Participants are the people, animals, and objects involved; ends refer to the aim of a communicative event. Acts sequence is the order in which the communicative acts occur and key depicts the tone and register used to frame them.

Instrumentalities refer to the modes, codes, and channels, while the norms are the expected rules for the given event; the genre refers to the kind of events such as a song in a concert, an office meeting or a chapter of a book.

The following is an example of how to apply the SPEAKING model to analyze a communicative event.

Defining The Communicative Situation

Anna and Gabriel meet at the library in the morning to complete an assignment. Gabriel will dictate and Anna will type an essay of 2000 words, that both worked on the previous evening. They will send it on-line as soon as they finish.

I will use the SPEAKING model to analyze three communicative events:

  • Anna and Gabriel greet
  • They do the homework.
  • They send the assignment on-line.

Applying The SPEAKING Model Communicative Event No 1

Anne and Gabriel meet at the library to complete a homework.

Greeting

  • Setting: The communicative event occurs in the morning at the library.
  • Participant: Anna and Gabriel.
  • Ends: Small talk before working in the assignment.
  • Acts sequence: Anna says good morning to Gabriel and Gabriel responds politely asking how was her previous evening. Anna takes her computer out of her back and places it on the desk while she replies to his question. Anna and Gabriel sit, he opens his notebook and both are ready to work.
  • Key: Anna and Gabriel use a formal language suitable for a social interaction between classmates.
  • Instrumentalities: Speaking.
  • Norms: Polite, respectful, and brief.
  • Genre: Conversation.

Communicative Event No 2

Dictating and Typing

  • Setting: The communicative event occurs in the morning at the library. They use a common desk and natural light.
  • Participants: Anna and Gabriel.
  • Ends: Typing the last assignment of the year.
  • Acts sequence: Gabriel reads and dictates then Anna listens and types until they complete the essay.
  • Key: Gabriel and Anna will use formal language while reading and typing.
  • Instrumentalities: A computer, Gabriel reads, dictates while Anna types.
  • Norm: The rules followed by Gabriel and Anna are academic and professional in nature.
  • Genre: Anna and Gabriel are writing a college assignment for academic purposes.

Communicative Event No 3

On-line submission

  • Setting: The communicative event occurs in the late morning at the library.
  • Participants: Anna and Gabriel.
  • Ends: Submission of the final assignment of the year.
  • Acts sequence: Saving, uploading the file and clicking the submission button.
  • Key: Professional, efficient
  • Norm: Anna and Gabriel follow the instructions to submit a file.
  • Instrumentalities: The elements used to submit the file are a computer, the internet, and instructions.
  • Genre: Technological application.

I find this approach very useful when analyzing cross-cultural communication as the norms and speech communities will change as consequence of the change of the meaning of acts and words in different contexts. This is what Hymes calls communicative competence, a concept that goes further from linguistic competence, which is more concerned with the mechanical use of language.

Reference List

Bock, Z. Gift M. (2013). Language, Society, and Communication. Braamfontein. Van Schaik Publishers.

Dell Hymes. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dell_Hymes. Accessed on the 9th February 2017.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)