Hyper Reading and Speaking in the English Language PART 4: Thought Groups
The Power of Pause Stations --- Thought Groups
This will be the final aspect and skill you will have to learn to develop hyper reading and speaking in the English language. This is called THOUGHT GROUPS.
Thought groups are defined as “a group of approximately two to five words that form a unit of meaning. A thought group can also be called a phrase” (Smith et. al., 1992). In speech delivery however, these are more of a breathing space or pause stations especially when reading long compound-complex sentences which cannot be done in one breathing. Imagine reading a 50-word sentence; you will surely need some breathing space since your air might run out by the 30th or 40th word. This is where thought groups come in handy. Pause stations form units of meaning. In fact, if you have tried reading a long paragraph or even just a sentence yet eventually finds it difficult to understand, chances are, you are pausing at the wrong stations thus the brain cannot process the units of meaning. An example is given below to illustrate the importance of thought groups.
A thought group is a group of approximately two to five words that form a unit of meaning.
Sentences with Wrong Pause Stations:
1. A thought/ group is a /group of approximately two to/ five words that/ form a unit of/ meaning//.
2. A/ thought group is/ a group of approximately/ two to five/ words that form a/ unit of meaning//.
3. A thought group is/ a group/ of approximately two/ to five/ words that/ form a unit of meaning//.
Try reading the three sentences with slashes. Notice how difficult it is to understand what the entire sentence is trying to convey. This is the problem when readers and speakers do not properly use thought groups or pause stations so that units of meaning in a sentence can be easily processed by the mind. You may even try to guess as many possible pause stations you can have in the given sentence, but the results may even be the same --- the listener and reader may be lost as to what the sentence truly means.
To make sure that we have the proper thought groups or pause stations, let us try following the rules in identifying them.
Rules in Slashing for the Phrases
- Locate the subject.
- Before a preposition but watch out for infinitives.
- Before a conjunction.
- After a verb.
- In between items enumerated.
- Before and after a direct quote.
- Long pause for a period; shorter pause for a comma.
- Watch for punctuation marks such as period, colon, semi-colon, question mark, and comma.
With these warning signs, it may be easier for you to locate the right pause stations. Let us try using the rules in the given sentence:
A thought group is a group of approximately two to five words that form a unit of meaning. (RAW)
1. Locate the subject.
In the RAW sentence, the complete subject is A THOUGHT GROUP. This means that we must slash or pause after the word “GROUP.”
2. Before a preposition but watch out for infinitives.
In the RAW sentence, there are three prepositions namely: OF, TO, and OF. Using this second rule, we will have to stop before the prepositions unless we see an infinitive. Therefore, the RAW sentence would look like this now:
A thought group/ is a group/ of approximately two /to five words that form a unit /of meaning.
3. Before a conjunction.
In the RAW sentence, there is only one conjunction, and that is THAT. Combining all the other slashes we now have for the RAW sentence; it will now look like the one below:
A thought group/ is a group/ of approximately two/ to five words/ that form a unit /of meaning.
4. After a verb.
In the RAW sentence, there are two verbs. They are IS and FORM. Again, including these pause stations in the sentence would make it look like the one below:
A thought group/ is a group/ of approximately two/ to five words/ that form/ a unit /of meaning.
Since there are no direct quote in this sample sentence, other rules do not apply. However, some punctuation marks are also pause stations as stated in rules 7 and 8. Using these last two rules, the finished slashed sentence would look like the one below:
A thought group/ is a group/ of approximately two/ to five words/ that form/ a unit/ of meaning//.
Note that the double slashes at the end of the sentence is a signal to the reader that it is the end or a longer pause or total stop is necessary.
Real-Life Application of the Thought Groups
Looking at the slashed RAW sentence, it seems that there are far too many pause stations in a single sentence. This does not mean however that the reader or speaker must pause in every station, but he or she may opt to pause in any slash should there be a need to breath. This is the importance of thought groups aside from giving meaning to the phrases in a sentence. At the same time, using the pause stations as breathing spaces also allows the reader and listener to easily process the information conveyed by the sentence being read or listened to. The only reason, aside from speech problem, why many do not understand what they have read or have listened to is usually based on the error in delivery due to misplaced pause stations. If this is done right all the time, reading and listening comprehension would be much easier and studying would be much more comfortable and with less effort.
Take the Thought Groups Test
Written below are a couple of sentences which will require slashes to identify the proper pause stations. Hope you remember the rules in identifying the right thought groups and where to properly place the slash. There are no punctuation marks in the given sentences so be sure to put them first before going after the slashes. Good luck and have fun!
- The team won the game but my uniform was muddy because it rained the entire time
- The sun is shining through the clouds so Irene thinks that our family can go swimming
- After our trip to the beach school started back and I was excited to see my friends
- My father would have purchased the car but it was too expensive and we have no garage
- Tony said you must try smiling so others will like you then she smiled for the first time
With the four skills and aspects now done, you can now develop the skills and focus on the necessary training needed to further improve your ability to read and speak in the English language. Standby as I make one more blog combining all four into one, but this is more of a review and test. Should you want to revisit the three blogs before this, be sure to click on the links below:
For Emphatic Sentence Stress: https://hubpages.com/education/Hyper-Reading-and-Speaking-in-the-English-Language-PART-3-The-Emphatic-Sentence-Stress
Till next time and don’t forget to comment, and share to others whom you think would be needing these skills and pointers. Thanks and bye for now.
Smith, Jan et. al. (1992). Communicate: Strategies for International Teaching Assistants. Regents: Prentice Hall Publishing House. N.p. Retrieved from https://projects.ncsu.edu/eslglobe/nmswishe/401_thought%20groups_stress_intonation.html