Introduction to British Rule in India
European interest in India has existed from the ancient period of time, because India was a rich country with spices, textiles and other western products. The fall of Roman Empire and the emergence of Arab power lead to the breaking of the European trade with India. But they try to keep trade with India through middlemen. But this kind of trade was not helped them more, because the Turks and Magnolia interfered with the trade route. The arrival of Vasco da Gama in Malabar (Kappad) created a new way to India through Arabian sea in 1498.
After the arrival of Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese understand two facts. I.e. Malabar is one of the important place for trade, but the area was under the monopoly of Arab merchants. Then Portuguese thought about how to monopolize trade in Malabar. After they captured Goa in 1510 used Goa as a vital place of their trade. They continued trade about a century. After they lost their trade monopoly due to some events happened in Europe.
But, it successfully bagged by another European power ‘Dutch’. During that time Dutch has a great trade relation with east. They concentrated only to control and monopolize the trade. So, they had warehouses in different places like Agra. They were not take any part of politics or society. And only focused on trade.
English east India Company formed in 1600. They also came in India. But during that time Arabs, local rulers, other European powers were major trade participants in India. So faced stiff competition from others. Every traders saw India as a second best place for their trading activity. Because India was a trade place for many European powers. The English east India Company went first to Surratt and asked Mughal court to give certain privileges, and it enables them to enrich their supremacy on other European traders.
After this agreement between English east India Company and the Mughals, the company begin to get a rocket speed growth in India. They changed their headquarters from Surratt to Bombay in 1674. During this period the relationship between English east India Company and Mughals was very friendly and peaceful. When sir. Josiah Child becomes the chairman of the company. He thought that it is best time to capture and build superiority over India. He focused on Chittagong was a failure but they do it in 1756.
English east India Company faced great threatens from another European power French east India Company formed in1664. The French company operated in India with the support of their French state. They established their first factory at Surratt in 1667, after spread factories in to different places like Chandernagar, Pondicherry…..
Since, the French company entirely depends on their mother country; it badly affected their freedom and trade. But English east India Company was enjoyed freedom. So, it helped them to create power in India by beating all other powers like Europeans, Arabs …