- Education and Science
In anticipation of higher intelligence I
The idea that the technological and social development can lead to prosperity, but a little too late for the realization that progress itself as such is possible. During the Middle Ages, people believed that the world exists from eternity in the same condition in which came shortly after the fall. After Azazel and Tubal Cain taught poor people (and among the poor, oddly enough, some important crafts), is nothing new to invent no longer possible under the sun. And only in the early modern period the most sagacious in surprise began to notice the changes that took place in front of them.
"The world has reached unprecedented heights in relation to improvement of life on earth, or as it is called Christ, in respect of" cares of this life, "eating, drinking, building, plants, shopping, sales, marriage, and marriage, therefore everyone has to admit that we are waiting for a destruction or change " - Luther reflected in the" Sermon on the second Sunday of Advent. "
But who lived a century later Francis Bacon believed that progress will radically change a person's life: technological advances and rational organization of society will lead to a golden age. That Bacon and outlined the two basic ideas, which for centuries will go hand in hand in the dreams of progress fans.
That these ideas: "You have all the right to organize" and "Technology can help us."
Contemporaries are dying of hunger? It is necessary to arrange things so that food enough for all. It's still not enough? Technology can help us! For the people of our time, it is obvious that technology in itself is neither good nor evil, but thinkers up to the beginning of the twentieth century could hardly imagine that the people who have mastered the secrets of nature, at the same time remained cruel and vicious. In Bacon residents of New Atlantis, learned to raise the dead animals, to build submarines and construct pipes that people can talk at a distance (no, not in vain after all emerged in the vocabulary of modern times slang name for a mobile phone - "pipe"), alien vices. In contrast to the English men, enlightened inhabitants of the island are unfamiliar with any adulterers, nor with the "brotherly love charm." For our contemporaries the relationship between the success of telecommunications and sexual promiscuity is much less obvious.
Antikrokodily and houses made of aluminum
The belief that men of science will be able to build a free society from evil, even more noticeable in the utopian socialists. Charles Fourier predicted that people of the future will be able to bring in aid workers new breed of hard-working animals - antikitov, antilvov, antikrokodilov to help bipedal fellows to engage with the operation and to build a society where everyone will feed themselves the fruits of his hands (and a little - the fruits of the clutches antikrokodilov) .
Although the Russian socialists in "Possessed" by Dostoevsky laughed at the naivete of those dreams and the dreamer Fourier called "sweet, distracted mumble" - this way of thinking has become truly universal in the XIX century. The idol of the same Russian Socialist Chernyshevsky dreamed of homes of metal and glass, an aluminum columns. Of course, in houses made from these materials simply can not live the old people - the Titans will be like gods, and free from base feelings. Surely Chernyshevsky would greatly surprised by visiting any modern Moscow supermarket and watch there the audience built of metal and glass.
I erred not only Chernyshevsky, but also those whom he deeply despised. For example, the legendary guardian of the victim Pushkin's epigrams Thaddeus Bulgarin painted in fantastic story as a bright picture of the future as his younger contemporary Chernyshevsky: "The whole earth is inhabited, fertilized and embellished by human hands, multiplied to an incredible degree" , and even the bottom of the sea turned fertile cornfield and "deliver our seafarers and divers lots of plants and animals for food" .
In the first half of the XIX century scientism it has become a common place. Prince Odoyevski dreamed about "the future improvement of the human race": living in the 4338 year, his heroes in an instant rush for Caspian and Himalayan tunnels, fly galvanostats and walk in closed gardens, which allow you to turn the most disgusting Petersburg or Moscow on a sunny day. This idea turned out to be surprisingly durable: remember how often flashed the city under the dome on the covers of magazines like Soviet "young technicians"? More recently, echoes this idea sounded from the lips of the Moscow officials announced that by next autumn the park "charge" lay a glass dome, allowing visitors to create a comfortable temperature.
The belief that science will transform the globe, will inherit the Jules Verne and Albert Robida, Alois Franz Reuleaux and Ridler. What is really surprising - is the fact that the majority of thinkers, does not seem to allow a simple thought: progress means not only meeting current human needs, but also the creation of new needs for themselves. Perhaps this is not as surprising as it may seem - because the thinkers of the XIX century, completely separated the Christian idea of man as a creation of the crown and did not believe that its nature is required to change for the better: the people and so good by themselves, but the bad traits It gives them a social injustice, poverty and the many troubles. All these human vices leave forever when it will release the technical progress.
"Almost the entire mass of air must be eliminated"
Those who dreamed of transforming not only the earth, but also the man himself, was one. Among them, mention should be made of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky - thinker endowed with a keen sense of responsibility for the entire universe. Widely known words Tsiolkovsky that mankind will not stay in the cradle - in the world.
However, dreaming of space, Tsiolkovsky never called mankind to leave its cradle: you can not leave the earth forever, for her "irresponsible creatures multiply that out of it will make housing torment" . On the contrary, even seeking to space, a person must not forget about the transformation of the home planet, which is to become a graphic creative power of the mind.
Philosopher, unfamiliar with the concept of a balanced ecosystem, it involves the destruction of all harmful insects, poisonous snakes and predators freed from vermin and weeds land should be planted with crops. Labour agronomists army to go on the continent from the ocean to the opposite shore, turning deserts, jungles and swamps in the Garden of Eden. Quadrupled the Earth's population will live in homes with climate control (no electronics - all with the help of nets, tubes, mirrors) and sooner or later learn to make maximum use of solar energy.
The herald of the idea of terraforming, Tsiolkovsky calculated that for a comfortable stay of people need quite thin, tenuous atmosphere, and therefore "almost the entire mass of the present air must be eliminated" . Needless to say, such experiments have led to disaster, compared with a small problemkoy to show the effects of the diversion of Siberian rivers? Smoothing the relief of the Earth and the setting on the planet optimal climate for agriculture, sowed the bottom of the oceans, humans possess solar energy - Tsiolkovsky predicted engines, which will dispose of 60% of the energy of our star.
But loving Earth Tsiolkovsky was stunned vast universe, hanging over his head: "Of the thousands of planets, each of the solar system, at least one is at a favorable distance from the sun gets warm enough, it is the atmosphere, oceans and inhabited. Thus, habitable planets would not be less than one million billion, which is represented by units with 15 zeros (1000 billion). If separate these habitable planets equally to people, each would receive a 500,000 habitable planets " .
These boundless space needed to colonize, but a thinker was skeptical with respect to the human body: to inhabit other worlds, people will have to turn to other forms of life, consisting of radiant energy.This is - a natural evolutionary step, which is considered Tsiolkovsky, evolving from simple to complex forms.
Our bodies are not adapted to living in space without a spacesuit - we need pressure, oxygen, food, protection from solar radiation. Transformed into a structure consisting of radiant energy, people will be able to obtain the power of life, eating light of the stars. The philosopher was convinced that higher race in the universe has reached this state - the unknown, free and immortal "gods" controlled movement of the sun and the entire galaxy. This makes the very fabric of the universe is truly alive: the stars and galaxies are able to think and feel. "I not only materialist, but panpsychists recognizing the sensitivity of the entire universe. This property, I believe inseparable from matter " , - wrote Tsiolkovsky. There is no doubt that it is this faith supported him the ability to live after two of his sons committed suicide: if the universe is alive, there is no death.