ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The World's First Steam Powered Train

Updated on July 10, 2020
molometer profile image

Common sense becomes common sense once it is pointed out. Thanks for dropping in.

First Steam Locomotive

When Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) created the first steam locomotive in 1801. He just wanted to move some coal from one place to another. He probably had no idea that his invention would change the world we live in and lead to the industrial revolution.

In fact he gave up on this world class innovation and became interested in other things. He went on to develop a steam powered car, amongst many other interesting inventions.

Trevithick's genius was to put a steam engine on wheels.

Putting a steam engine on wheels seems like such an obvious thing to do, to us today, but it wasn't always like that. This radical technological innovation was a very long time coming.

As a technology, the functional steam engine, had been around for over 125 years (Denis Papin's Digester or pressure cooker of 1679) before someone had the bright idea to mount it on some wheels.

Think about that, 125 years passed, before someone thought to put it on wheels. Not exactly a speedy transition by today's standards, where products are obsolete before they even leave the drawing board let alone the factory.

Richard Trevithick's First Steam Locomotive

Early Steam Vehicles

If we look at modern vehicles compared to early steam vehicles.

We see that the fuel may have changed and today we have better brakes, but these early vehicles had wheels on four corners and they have the familiar shape of an even earlier form of transport. (A coach or wagon)

It 'looks' like a vehicle. Although early machines were not designed to carry passengers. The wheels were added to move the engine to where it was required to work.

The familiarity of the shape or form of this early wheeled steam engine, and all modern vehicles then, is historical and practical. Four wheels on four corners makes sense.

The leap from static engines sitting in mines pumping out water. To putting them on a set of wheels and making them mobile. Took a lot of imagination, many decades and numerous innovations.

Steam Rally, Haddenham, Cambridgeshire

Hero's Aeolipile Roman Steam Engine

Hero's Aeolipile
Hero's Aeolipile | Source

Roman Steam Powered Novelty

The idea of using steam as a source of power is a very old idea indeed and there are records dating back over 2000 years, to an early device that was used as an entertainment by the Romans.

Imagine where our technology would be today, if the Romans had figured out how to harness steam power.

The Romans

The Romans actually invented a form of 'jet engine' using steam. circa 100 BC. It doesn't seem to have had any practical use other than as an entertaining novelty.

It is amazing to think that the Romans, did not make the connection with this 'toy' that they had made, and that it could be used for some other practical purpose.

After all they gave us the aqueduct, water mills, central heating and a multitude of useful inventions, and yet steam power was lost on them!

1700 years later, Industrial inventions in steam led to mobile power, mass production and the industrial revolution in the UK. For the first time we could take the power wherever we wanted.

It may be hard for us to imagine what life was like, prior to this ingenious harnessing of steam power. There were only a few ways to get power. Wind, water, human or horsepower.

If you wanted to build a mill, it had to be located in terrain to take advantage of local streams, that could be harnessed to drive water wheels. Hilly areas predominately. Or on flat lands where wind power could be utilized to drive windmills.

The only other form of power readily available were horses or human muscle power.

Innovation and Invention

The invention of the steam engine freed people to locate to a much wider range of areas.As long as there was a ready source of coal or timber.

Many of the first industrial towns combined all these elements. It is no coincidence that coal and iron manufacturing areas were also the birthplace of the steam engine.

Early steam engines were used to pump water from coal mines. They had little in the way of safety features and often would explode killing anyone nearby.

The early engines had to be operated manually pouring cold water over the condensing unit after every stroke. To cool the condensing unit and allow it to return to the start position.

The invention of the steam traction engine came a long time after the invention of the steam engine itself, and was more an innovation rather than a pure invention.

Putting the engine on a set of wheels and making it a mobile form of power, for transportation of goods and later people, took a further 106 years.

In many cases the wheels were only added to get the steam engine from one field to another. i.e to run a threshing machine, as seen in the video below.

It was many years again before someone realized that this could in fact replace horse power for moving goods around. And much later again as transportation for people.

Steam Powered Threshing Machine

Stephenson's Rocket

The First Commercial Locomotive
The First Commercial Locomotive | Source

Inventions and Innovators

There were a series of inventions and innovations along the way, that led to the development of the modern steam engine.

Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) developed a theory on the behavior of gasses under varying pressures. This is Boyles Law.

The mathematical equation for Boyle's law is:

pV = K

p denotes the pressure of the system.

V denotes the volume of the gas.

k is a constant value representative of the pressure and volume of the system.

The next problem. How to turn this new knowledge from the above equation into a working machine to solve the following problem. i.e. removing excess water In mines

Solution Mining Pumps

Thomas Savery (1650-1715)

Savery patented his first crude steam engine in 1698. This was based on and earlier design by Denis Papin. The Digester or pressure cooker of 1679.

The Digester pre-dates Boyles Law, and had a tendency to explode quite often until people began to understand Boyle's ideas and applied their new understanding of the expansion of gasses which led to the development of a steam release valve. Another crucial step on the road to a successful locomotive.

Savery had been trying to solve the problem of excess water in coal mines. His machine worked by creating a vacuum; which sucked water out of the mine shaft. By all accounts It was pretty inefficient and was also prone to explosion.

Thomas Newcomen (24 Feb 1664 – 5 Aug 1729.

In 1712 Newcomens steam engines were known as 'fire engines' or 'atmospheric engines'. They worked primarily from a fire, heating water in a chamber, and by atmospheric pressure pushing a piston into the vacuum caused by condensing steam.

Cold water was poured over the hot steam condensing chamber so dropping the temperature and creating this vacuum. As we know:-

'Nature abhors a vacuum' François Rabelais (c 1494-1553)

Enter Richard Trevithick (13 April 1771 – 22 April 1833)

Trevithick. abandoned the condensing stage altogether, and pursued steam under pressure. He realized that earlier machines had suffered from poor materials, weak metals and pipe joints. They just could not handle the pressures and heat generated.

Trevithick's 1797 machine was known as the ''puffer', because of the puffing sound it made in operation. By 21st February 1804, he had built a small steam locomotive, running on formerly horse drawn tram tracks in Penydarren ironwork's, South Wales.

Although many people were thinking about steam locomotion. It is Richard Trevithick who invented the first fully functional steam locomotive.

It was a commercial success briefly, However the engine was so heavy that the rails could not contain it. It often broke the tracks of left them altogether. Amazing as it may seem. He abandoned the whole steam locomotive concept and moved on to other projects.

Step up George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848)

The First 'Real' Locomotive

How did a poor, illiterate, coal mining worker, develop the first commercially successful steam locomotive? He was intelligent, diligent and he knew the value of learning from other people's good ideas. Why make the same mistakes, others have made, when it is easier to study and so avoid those errors.

Stevensons Rocket

By the year 1813, George Stephenson knew there was a need to develop an efficient way to keep the coal mines free from flooding and excess water, and to transport the spoil and coal in and around the mine and local area.

He would have known about the current ideas and engines in use. He also knew that others were designing locomotives for this purpose.

Stephenson must have felt that he could do better and began the construction of his first locomotive. With the help of his assistant John Thorswall, a fellow worker at the coal mine who was also a blacksmith.

The Blucher

Stephenson's locomotive "The Blucher" first ran on the Cillingwood Railway on July 25, 1814. The track was four hundred and fifty feet long and uphill. The railway had been in use for many years and the motive power had been horses.

Stephenson's engine pulled eight loaded wagons of coal, total weight thirty tons. At a speed of approximately four miles per hour. This early success encouraged Stevenson to pursue further refinements and he went on to build many more steam engines.

The most famous being The Rocket.

Initially the Rocket was not much faster than earlier models until George noticed steam blasting out of the pistons. He added some pipes to capture this 'spent' steam and directed it into the smokestack.

This had the effect of making the engine draw more air into the firebox and burn more fiercely. The result was astonishing. More heat produces more steam in the same size boiler.

More steam pressure equals more speed. It could be seen as an early form of turbo charger. This one innovation almost trebled the speed of the Rocket.

In 1825 Stephenson build the Stockton and Darlington railway. The first ever complete steam engine powered, railway system. He then went on to build the Liverpool to Manchester railway in 1830.

The early steam engines were built with rudimentary knowledge. Although Boyles Law may have been known to some, it wasn't until may years later, that the physics of how they actually operated was fully understood.

Traction Engine. The Adventurer Built by Garrett 1918

The Adventurer Traction Engine Was Built By Garrett in 1918.
The Adventurer Traction Engine Was Built By Garrett in 1918. | Source
It is less than 100 years since these machines were the height of technological advancement.
It is less than 100 years since these machines were the height of technological advancement. | Source
Do you want to buy this image on a nice new mug or poster?
Do you want to buy this image on a nice new mug or poster? | Source

Nene Valley Railway, Cambridgeshire


Nene Valley Railway Location

Nene Valley Railway UK:
Nene Valley Railway, Kings Cliffe, Cambridgeshire PE8 6, UK

get directions

Steam Locomotives Survive

Many people today, believe that the age of steam was killed off prematurely, and that they were dispatched with undue haste in the mid 1960's.

Newer industrial inventions, namely the Diesel Engine as seen in the video below, seemed like the way forward. Many British steam engines were sold for scrap.

The gentleman that owned the scrap yard had so many engines and carriages to scrap that luckily he started dismantling the carriages first.

He had not had the time to cut the engines up, before a group of steam railway enthusiasts sought him out, and asked to buy them back. It is often the case that enthusiasts lead the way.

The swift action of this small group of people means that today, many of the surviving trains are safe and running on privately owned railways, catering to the tourist trade.

In total, the scrap yard owner had over 200 locomotives.

They are now back in use on the various private lines around Great Britain. It is great to be able to see these amazing trains from a bygone era.

To answer the question. Who invented the steam locomotive, and who first had the idea to put wheels onto steam engines, as we have seen above is complex and had many contributors.

While Richard Trevithick invented the first steam locomotive and Stevenson invented the first commercially successful locomotive, the tradition of sharing ideas, invention and innovation continues today.

I wonder where would we be if the Romans had figured out how to use steam power 2,000 years ago?

The age of steam is still far from over.

Early Diesel Engines

Mallard is still the fastest steam engine in the world

© 2012 Micheal


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 

      7 years ago from England

      Hi Michael, they are great aren't they? we see a lot of them down here in my town every year when we have a mini rally and fair, and in fact next week we are going to see some more, along with vintage cars, and airplanes too at white waltham, I love steam, I remember our old train when I was a kid, brought back memories! lovely, voted up and shared, nell

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hello rahul0324,

      You are absolutely right. These industrial inventions especially steam powered engines changed everything. Life was never the same, after the coming of steam.

    • rahul0324 profile image

      Jessee R 

      9 years ago from Gurgaon, India

      Awesome hub! The Steam Engine changed the equation of modern day public travel and opened infinite avenues!!

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hello Elle,

      They sure a sight to see trundling along the road.

      There are many steam engines still knocking around in Britain.

      Thankfully many survived the chop in the 60's.

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hello bdegiulio,

      They really are amazing and they do look so ancient? But this engine is less than 100 years ago. Makes us think. Industrial inventions are being made everyday but we rarely see such comparable examples.

      These steam powered engines were very much in the public spaces. I suppose that is the difference with today.

    • RedElf profile image


      9 years ago from Canada

      Love steam engines - a farmer down the road from where I lived held a threshing bee every fall using old horse drawn and steam equipment - it was magical!

    • bdegiulio profile image

      Bill De Giulio 

      9 years ago from Massachusetts

      Michael, really enjoyed this. Sure takes one back in time, although it really wasn't that long ago that this was the latest thing. As you mentioned, time and technology sure seem to have speeded up. Anyway great job, would love to come across one of these here in Massachusetts. Have a great day.

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hello Brett,

      The weird thing is that they are now more popular than ever. There are so many shows on all over the UK now, showing steam powered engines of all shapes and sizes.

      I too remember seeing some of these still working in the London docks in the 60's!

      We have a lot to be rightly proud of in terms of our industrial inventions.

    • Brett.Tesol profile image

      Brett C 

      9 years ago from Asia

      These were amazing machines for their day! I remember as a kid, these would always come to shows in our town and we could get rides on them.

      Up, interesting and SHARING.

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi Cindy,

      you are right, all the cars could not wait to get past it. lol

      I found it interesting that this steam engine, was less than 100 years old.

      I suppose our lives have 'speeded' up quite a bit in those few years.

    • homesteadbound profile image

      Cindy Murdoch 

      9 years ago from Texas

      How fun! I would love to see one of these driving down the road ... but I had to smile at the frustration I imagined the drivers behind him were feeling! We are always in a hurry, and to have that old dinosaur slowing us down would be just more than some drivers would care to endure.

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi John,

      Glad you enjoyed reading about these industrial inventions. They really are incredible machines.

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi Tammy,

      Thanks for reading this hub. I know it's a little 'boys and their toys' but it is amazing to see something like this still trundling along the road.

      Glad you found it interesting.

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi lord,

      I did think about editing out the gas station but left it in for it's ironic value lol.:)

    • John Sarkis profile image

      John Sarkis 

      9 years ago from Winter Haven, FL

      Awesome hub Molometer. You've detailed the history of the "steam powered engine" in a very eloquent fashion. Excellent video as well.

      Voted up and away.


    • tammyswallow profile image


      9 years ago from North Carolina

      Great history lesson on steam engines. This is one area I haven't studied and I found this to be very interesting. Voting up!

    • Lord De Cross profile image

      Joseph De Cross 

      9 years ago from New York

      Felt Like we were In Yorkshire back in 1838.The video is cool and right on the money! We caught with the BP Gas station, and even saw the price per gallon. Jokes aside, your hub is so wonderfully done Molometer. Felt like it was Christmas again! Luckily the scraper company never got rid of some living history. Voted up!


    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Thanks rajan jolly,

      They really are something special I agree. Interesting to see how the 'new' steam engine gets on. There are alternative fuels for the new steam engine too.

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hello wewillmake,

      The new designs are much less polluting than in the old days. Plus 600 passengers on one train is less polluting than another 600 cars on the roads? What do you think. Maybe there is still a role for these steam powered engines.

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hello B. Leekley,

      Thanks for leaving a comment.

      In this case. I was referring to fuel sources for motive power only.

      Solar power as we know it today was not available.

      The link to Wikipedia may have to be deleted. Outbound Links should not be in the comments section, apparently.

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi UnnamedHarald,

      Don't know about exploding computers but they certainly crashed plenty of times lol

      As far as industrial inventions go, I don't think anything comes close to steam powered engines. It freed us to move power anywhere we needed it.

      The same I suppose could be said about computers today.

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi Aurelio,

      It's true only in England lol. The way things are going we may see more of these on the roads soon. :)

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hello Always,

      Thanks. I am glad you enjoyed reading this. It was fun to write too. Amazing what we can see on the road.

    • rajan jolly profile image

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      9 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      These steam engines are beauties in their own right. I remember before we had these diesel train engines, we had the steam train engines chugging along with their characteristic chug chug, especially up the hills. These beauties are now a part of history.

      Thanks for sharing such lovely pictures and the video is awesome.

      Up all the way.

    • wewillmake profile image


      9 years ago from kerala-INDIA

      They are the symbol of our past. Its very polluting if we introduced them nowadays..

    • UnnamedHarald profile image

      David Hunt 

      9 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa

      Another great hub, molometer-- the video was terrific. I remember riding on the Blue Bell. Good times. Voted up and interesting. I wonder where we'd be computer-wise if the early models occasionally exploded?

    • alocsin profile image

      Aurelio Locsin 

      9 years ago from Orange County, CA

      Only in the UK would you see a steam-powered vehicle chugging down the street. I love the "slow vehicle" sign in back of it in the video. Voting this Up and Interesting. SHARED.

    • always exploring profile image

      Ruby Jean Richert 

      9 years ago from Southern Illinois

      Wow, You put a lot into this hub, well researched. It was interesting to read. I can't imagine a steam engine on the highway. Thank's for sharing...

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi Randy,

      It was good that it worked and inspired you to think of other ways to use it.

      Those Romans sure missed out. Can you imagine where we would be today, if they had figured out how to use steam powered engines 2000 years ago? Mind boggling!

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi Pamela,

      Thanks for dropping in. Glad you liked this hub. Steam powered engines are so beautiful. They almost seem to be alive sometimes.

    • Randy Godwin profile image

      Randy Godwin 

      9 years ago from Southern Georgia

      My Hero engine didn't work real well Michael, but it did give one the idea of how steam could actually be utilized for more things. And yes, you'd figure the ancient Romans would have figured some way to use it.


    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Thanks Bill,

      much appreciated, especially from an esteemed colleague.

      It was so cool to see this wonderful machine trundling along.

      I drive a Prius. It struck me that my car in 100 years time will be considered very innovative.

      I don't know if will be considered as beautiful lol

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi Randy,

      So glad you enjoyed reading as I really enjoyed writing it. The Hero engine was quite something. Wasn't it.

      I remember my brother Tom building one of these models too, when I was a child. Great fun. Did your hero engine work well?

      It's hard to believe that the Romans didn't understand what they were 'playing' with?

      What do you think?

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hello Vellur,

      I guess we have to wonder why the Romans missed the significance of steam power. They were so good at so many things and yet they missed this entirely.

      Thanks for leaving an interesting comment.

    • molometer profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi Curiad,

      Thanks for reading. They are great machines, aren't they.

      I bet your daughter really enjoyed seeing the fabulous Thomas The Tank Engine. What a star he is lol.

      I took my kids on a few trains when they were little and now they take their children for days out too.

    • profile image


      9 years ago

      What a very interesting and informative article Michael!We have quite a few in the United States as well, I love the old steam engines and took my daughter on the Thomas the Train here in California.

      Voted Up!

    • Vellur profile image

      Nithya Venkat 

      9 years ago from Dubai

      Great hub with lots of interesting information. There is so much to know about the development of the steam engine. Never knew that Romans were the first to initiate the concept. Voted up. Enjoyed reading.

    • Pamela99 profile image

      Pamela Oglesby 

      9 years ago from Sunny Florida

      I loved your video and this is a very interesting history of the steam engines. Awesome and interesting hub.

    • Jackie Lynnley profile image

      Jackie Lynnley 

      9 years ago from the beautiful south

      Some great info and very interesting! Voted up.

    • Donna Sundblad profile image

      Donna Sundblad 

      9 years ago from Georgia

      Very informative. Voted up.

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 

      9 years ago from Olympia, WA

      A fascinating read. Naturally, since I taught history, you had my total attention with this well-documented and researched hub. Wonderful video and how fortunate that you were there to see it.

    • Randy Godwin profile image

      Randy Godwin 

      9 years ago from Southern Georgia

      Thoroughly enjoyed this one, Michael! I remember making a small "Hero" steam engine out of an evaporated milk can for a science fair project back in grammar school many decades ago.

      There are still quite a few old steam train engines on display here in the south as some towns have kept them as curiosity pieces over the years. I like the steam models you have ads for too as they remind me of those sold in the old Sears Christmas toy catalogs when I was a child.

      Rated up, of course!



    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)