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Inflammed Mood: Autoimmune and Biploar pt 3

Updated on June 9, 2015
RM Nash profile image

R.M. Nash MA CMHC, primarily writes articles related to mental health, education and relationships. Founder of Creating New Pathways LLC.

Dendrites look like tree branches. They act like  traffic light in brain activity.
Dendrites look like tree branches. They act like traffic light in brain activity. | Source

Research

Research

It is believed that approximately 2.4 % of the population has Bipolar Disorder. Reports from the National Institute of Mental Health findings suggest an overlap in genetics related to same biological pathways; including immune systems and neural communication. The findings reveal a disruption in the mechanisms that control the expression {on/off} of specific genes. Research suggest that a disruption in this process prenatally could adversely affect brain development.

(Disorders share risk gene pathways for immune, epigenetic regulation. Jan. 29, 2015. National Institute of Mental Health: www.nimh.nih.gov. Retrieved 5/22/15).

Researchers using a technique called pluripotent stem cells (iPSC’s) were used to “return” a patient’s skin cells to stem cells. The skin cells were brought to a point where the stem cells became neurons, which could be studied interacting in a Petri dish in the lab. This allowed researchers to see how a patient’s mutated gene might affect synapse. It was found that people with lower iPSC’s had less cell communication. This finding was duplicated when genes without the mutation were made to express the same deficit in neuron/synapse communication.

One way to think of this is to see the gene as a light switch. The neuron and synapse the plug and electricity. When the gene gets switched on the neuro and synapse get “electricity” to work. Like your light for example, if it doesn’t get enough electricity, the light might be dim or not light at all. This study found that some mutated genes keep neuron and synapse from working with full strength if at all. This potentially leading to disorders like depression and bipolar.

(Suspect gene corrupts neural connections: Disease of synapse. NIH funded study. Source Hogjun Song, PhD., Johns Hopkins University. www.nimh.nih.go (Retrieved 5/22/15).

Stem cells are: “ Body master cell with the ability to grow into any one of the bodies more than 200 cell types…..They maintain ability to divide throughout life and give rise to cell that can become specialized and take the place of cells that die or are lost. They have the ability to renew and are repair tissue.”

Medicienet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=1059. (Retrieved 5/25/15.)

NMDA

NMDA

Dr. Mathew S. Kayser, MD., PhD and Dr. Joseph Dalmau MD., PhD, from University of Pennsylvania report that a number of conditions have been found to result from autoimmune dysfunction. Autoantibodies may one day guide in the diagnosis and treatment of disorder. Including those that involve antineural antibodies that attack proteins involved in synaptic function. Resulting in psychiatric manifestations that include: irritability, depression, hallucinations, personality disturbances, neurocognitive changes, short term memory loss, sleep disturbances and seizers.

When CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) was tested, mild increases in the number of white blood cells (lymphocytes) was found. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) of brain also showed hyperintensities (more areas light up in the scan on brain), particularly in the area of medial temporal lobe. This is an area of the brain associated with higher risk of stroke, demetia, decline in cognitive skills, executive function skills (planning, organizing, time management…) and processing speed; how quickly and easily you understand information. For example some people have difficulty hearing what is said, making sense of it, coming up with answer and then speaking it.

The receptor NMDA (N-methyl-D-asparatate)-type glutamate has traditionally been believed to be critical in learning, visual adaptation (How your vision system changes with where you are and what you are doing.); synaptic plasticity and conditions such as schizophrenia and addiction is now know to be a target of autoimmune dysfunction.

NMDA are found throughout the brain. Rodent brains were tested with antibodies immunostain from patients. The study revealed areas of the hippocampus were targeted. Particularly a sub unit of NMDA called NR1. The antibodies in the rodent samples were found to bind to receptor causing a reduced glutamatergic transmission. This effect was reversible in the test environment when the autoantibody was removed. The potential connection between autoimmune and bipolar was also discussed in a report entitled “Cytokines in Bipolar Disorder: Paving the Way for Neuroprogression” (Guimarães, Bauer, Machado-Vieira and Teixeira; 2014).

(Emerging Link between Autoimmune Disorder and Neuropsychological Disease. Dr. Mathew S. Kayser MD., PhD. And Dr. Joseph Dalmau MD., PhD. Journal of Neurop 10.1176

1appisychiatry Clinical Neuroscience: 20011. Fall:23 (1) : 90-97. Doi 10.11761aapi.neuropsych.23.1.90 Retrieved 5/22/15 HHS Public Access/google search).

Glutamate

• Glutamate: important transmitter for normal brain function.

• Over half of brain synapse release glutamate.

• If released due to injury it is toxic and can cause neuron death.

• Involved in cognition, memory and learning.

Neuroplasticity

Neuroplasticity: “To illustrate neuroplasticity …imagine making an impression of a coin in a lump of clay. In order for the impression of the coin to appear in clay, changes must occur in the clay. The shape of the clay changes as the coin is pressed into the clay. Similar, the neural circuitry in the brain must reorganize in response to experiences or sensory stimulus.” (Neuroscience for Kids. faculty.washington./edu/chudler/pkast.html). Retrieved 5/28/15.

Cytokines

Cytokines

Guimarães and team’s report discusses the role of cytokines in Bipolar Disorder. Cytokines are a category of small proteins involved in coordinating immune response and neural activity. Cytokines activate various areas of the brain including the hypothalamic-pituitary- axis (HPA). This area is known to be involved in regulating glucocorticoid (mood/ regulate cortical involved in stress).

Cytokines involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine (neurotransmitter got moody ate serotonin and dopamine) and involved in emotion, mood, reward and psychomotor (Thinking and movement coordination; ability to walk and chew gum at same time for example). In postmortem (after death) reviews it was found that areas of brain called dendrites (look like tree branch that act like a signal director for brain activity) atrophy, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (the part of brain in the front; behind your forehead). Studies of prefrontal cortex have shown this area to be involved with problem solving, emotions and complex thought.

Inflammatory mechanism seem to play a major role in neuronal cell death and may contribute to the decrease in size and hypoactiation (action at lower level than normal) of prefrontal lobes in Bipolar Disorder. The mania side of Bipolar Disorder medication treatments are generally effective at preventing relapse. The depression part of Bipolar Disorder is area of challenge. It is hoped that with continued research cytokines with the desire to possibly use the cytokines as biomarker in future diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder.

The research of autoimmune and inflammatory connection to behavioral health is beginning to look more promising with the research showing anti-inflammatory medications having anti-depressant effect.

Neural Plasticity Volume 2014, Article ID 360481,9 pages. Http:/dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/360481. Cytokins in Bipolar Disorder: Paving the Way for Neuroprogression. Guimarães, Bauer, Machado-Vieria and Teixeira.Cy

" Anti-inflammatory medications have anti-depressant effect..."

Neural Plasticity Volume 2014, Article ID 360481,9 pages. Http:/dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/360481. Cytokins in Bipolar Disorder: Paving the Way for Neuroprogression. Guimarães, Bauer, Machado-Vieria and Teixeira.

National Suicide Prevention

1-800-273-8255

TTY

_1-800-799-4889________

Bipolar Disorder has a hereditary factor.

Like the lamp on your desk neural health needs the right amount energy.

Evidence of link between autoimmune disorders in mental health conditions.

Some medications in the lab show improvement in Bipolar Condition.

Call to Action

Call to Action: The biggest gift you can give to those with mental illness and learning disorders is to learn more, spread the knowledge. Help create brighter days and break the stigma!
Call to Action: The biggest gift you can give to those with mental illness and learning disorders is to learn more, spread the knowledge. Help create brighter days and break the stigma! | Source

Summary

Summary:

  • Bipolar is a chronic, sever and disabling medical condition that is estimated to be 80% hereditary.
  • Areas of the brain (hippocampus and amygdala) show signs of atrophy in postmortem review.
  • Bipolar mania give the individual a sense of extreme energy, can do anything, while the depression can be deadly.
  • Autoimmune systems are being shown to be involved in Bipolar Disorder.
  • Bipolar often has co-occurring conditions such as impaired cognitive, endocrine, autonomic and circadian rhythms (sleep cycle).
  • Individuals with Bipolar have more incidence of anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, alcohol, substance use and some learning disabilities such as Attention Deficit Disorder.
  • Researchers are hoping to use the new knowledge regarding autoimmune and mental health to develop earlier diagnostic and treatments. Maybe even prevention.


Call to Action: The biggest gift you can give to those with mental illness and learning disorders is to learn more, spread the knowledge. Break the stigma!

Resources

  1. Nash, 2006, Psychology of Children and Adolescents: Trauma, Depression and Identity
  2. Junn, E & Boyatzis, C (Eds) (2007) annual edition 07/08: Child growth and development

14th edition. Guilford,CN: McGrawHill/Dushkin Publishing.

  1. Derlega, V. Winstead, B. & Jones, W. (2005) Personality: Contemporary Theory. Belmont, CA:d Research (3rd ed.) Belmont CA: Wardseworth.
  2. Bipolar. National Institutes of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder/index.shtml. Retrieved 5/22/15.
  3. Up and Down: Bipolar. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eyiZfzbgaW4. Retrieved 6/1/15.
  4. National Institute of Health, n.i.m.i.nhi.gov/healthtopiccsbipolar-disorder/index.shtml. Retrieved 6/2/15.
  5. Transcrainal Magnetic Stimulation . http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/psychiatry/specialty_areas/brain_stimulation/tms/.
  6. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
    https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=transcranial+magnetic+stimulation&view=detailv2&&&id=072D260A4757EC8CF77E5B67F312B2B8265D6C4D&selectedIndex=146&ccid=YFHJJtMj&simid=607993161531721798&thid=JN.%2fGh0eIVAO%2bdTReagWRk4Qw&ajaxhist=0. Retrieved
  7. ElectroconvulsiveTherapyhttp://www.bing.com/images/search?q=electroconvulsive+therapy&view=detailv2&&&id=3DB2F20A001251925651E44790431370F5B00460&selectedIndex=14&ccid=%2bj6pRHXR&simid=608023750289395664&thid=JN.HSZuGe57cqLn6GbWYLV6Iw&ajaxhist=0. Retrieved 6/4/15.
  8. ETC http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=electroconvulsive+therapy&view=detailv2&&&id=3DB2F20A001251925651E44790431370F5B00460&selectedIndex=14&ccid=%2bj6pRHXR&simid=608023750289395664&thid=JN.HSZuGe57cqLn6GbWYLV6Iw&ajaxhist=0. Retrieved 6/4/15.
  9. Lithium http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=electroconvulsive+therapy&view=detailv2&&&id=3DB2F20A001251925651E44790431370F5B00460&selectedIndex=14&ccid=%2bj6pRHXR&simid=608023750289395664&thid=JN.HSZuGe57cqLn6GbWYLV6Iw&ajaxhist=0. Retrieved 6/4/15.
  10. (Disorders share risk gene pathways for immune, epigenetic regulation. Jan. 29, 2015. National Institute of Mental Health: www.nimh.nih.gov. Retrieved 5/22/15).
  11. http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=synapse&view=detailv2&&&id=1AC98BEF669794E4C1BD74CAAEA4C88DA81A12AE&selectedIndex=9&ccid=Lzj8M6YR&simid=607996137948515886&thid=JN.R5SQGkmmRqTWJEXsExojeg&ajaxhist=0. Retrieved 6/2/15.
  12. (Suspect gene corrupts neural connections: Disease of synapse. NIH funded study. Source Hogjun Song, PhD., Johns Hopkins University. www.nimh.nih.go (Retrieved 5/22/15
  13. Stem Cell Medicienet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=1059. (Retrieved 5/25/15.)
  14. Image:bing.com/images/search?q=brain+diagram. Retrieved 6/2/15
  15. Neuroplasticity (Neuroscience for Kids. faculty.washington./edu/chudler/pkast.html). Retrieved 5/28/15.
  16. (Emerging Link between Autoimmune Disorder and Neuropsychological Disease. Dr. Mathew S. Kayser MD., PhD. And Dr. Joseph Dalmau MD., PhD. Journal of Neurop 10.1176
  17. 1appisychiatry Clinical Neuroscience: 20011. Fall:23 (1) : 90-97. Doi 10.11761aapi.neuropsych.23.1.90 Retrieved 5/22/15 HHS Public Access/google search).
  18. Neural Plasticity Volume 2014, Article ID 360481,9 pages. Http:/dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/360481. Cytokins in Bipolar Disorder: Paving the Way for Neuroprogression. Guimarães, Bauer, Machado-Vieria and Teixeira.



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