Intelligence (IQ) vs. Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
"It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change." - Charles Darwin
Apparent in many aspects of human interaction is the notion of "survival of the fittest." In business, government, science, and even personal relationships, the competition for that which is scarce drives humans to find an "edge" over their adversaries. A good indicator of success in the past has been the level of one's intelligence. It was assumed that the relationship between one's IQ and one's success would be positively correlated. In other words, "smarter" individuals were bound to triumph over those less intelligent.
However, what about "book smarts vs. street smarts?" Can an individual with an average IQ be more successful than an IQ genius?
Yes, but only if the individual in question has the higher level of emotional intelligence (EQ); IQ will get you through school, but EQ gets you through life.
IQ - A number that signifies the relative intelligence of a person; the ratio multiplied by 100 of the mental age as reported on a standardized test to the chronological age. IQ is primarily used to measure one's cognitive abilities, such as the ability to learn or understand new situations; how to reason through a given problem/scenario; the ability to apply knowledge to one's current situations. It involves primarily the neo cortex or top portion of the brain.
- Over 140 - Genius or almost genius
- 120 - 140 - Very superior intelligence (Gifted)
- 110 - 119 - Superior intelligence
- 90 - 109 - Average or normal intelligence
- 80 - 89 - Dullness
- 70 - 79 - Borderline deficiency in intelligence
- Under 70 - Feeble-mindedness
EQ - A measure of one's emotional intelligence, as defined by the ability to use both emotional and cognitive thought. Emotional intelligence skills include but are not limited to empathy, intuition, creativity, flexibility, resilience, stress management, leadership, integrity, authenticity, intrapersonal skills and interpersonal skills. It involves the lower and central sections of the brain, called the limbic system. It also primarily involves the amygdala, which has the ability to scan everything that's happening to us moment to moment to see if it is a threat. As defined by Dr. Daniel Goleman, the components of emotional intelligence are "simple, yet powerful enough to effect change." Hence, if Goleman and Darwin are to believed, it is emotionally intelligent individuals who are most able to adapt to dynamic environments and therefore most likely to survive (read: succeed).
Examples by comparison of EQ vs. IQ
- Appealing to emotions to convince someone rather than using facts alone
- Using your emotions in addition to your cognitive abilities to function rather than relying solely on logic
- Knowing how and why vs. Knowing what
- Knowing how to motivate separate individuals as opposed to treating everyone the same way
- Understanding and controlling your emotions to use them for something vs. Letting your emotions control you because you do not know how to deal with them.
The Components of EQ
Emotional intelligence is measured using 5-major components and 15-subcomponents:
1. Intrapersonal Skills (ability to understand and apply personal emotions)
* Self Regard (ability to accept oneself as basically good)
* Emotional Self Awareness (ability to recognize one's own feelings, which allows us to manage them and make better decisions. It is important to be positive even when challenged because it results in more focused thinking)
* Assertiveness (ability to express feelings, beliefs, and thoughts without becoming antagonistic and uncooperative towards others)
* Independence (ability to be self-directed and self-controlled in ones thinking and actions and to be free of emotional dependency)
* Self Actualization (ability to realizes one's potential)
2. Interpersonal Skills (people skills)
* Empathy (understanding the feelings of others, which enables us to respond appropriately to changes in the emotional climate of others; Significant others, take note)
* Social Responsibility (being a cooperative, contributing, and constructive member of various social groups)
* Interpersonal Relationships (ability to establish and maintain mutually beneficial relationships noted for their intimacy and by the giving & receiving of affection, whether it be as a lover, friend, family member, or loyal employee)
3. Stress Management (ability to handle challenges)
* Stress Tolerance (Ability to handle difficult situations without ‘falling apart')
* Impulse Control (ability to resist or delay an impulse, drive, or temptation to act; controlling the need for "instant gratification")
4. Adaptability (Ability to react quickly, appropriately, and efficiently to change)
* Reality Testing (ability to assess the correspondence between what is experienced and what objectively exists; knowing what you want to do vs. what you actually can do)
* Flexibility (ability to adjust one's emotions, thoughts, and behaviors to changing situations and conditions)
* Problem Solving (ability to identify and define problems as well as to generate and implement potentially effective solutions)
5. General Mood
How can EQ Help?
To be successful and survive in today's society, individuals need to have the necessary communication and organizational skills to make sound decisions and interact with each other. Goleman argues that an individual's success at work is 80 percent dependent on emotional quotient and only 20 percent dependent on intelligence quotient. This is because EQ components are useful in assisting employees with decision-making in areas like teamwork, inclusion, productivity, and communication.
Furthermore, good listening habits and skills are integral components of EQ, and carry the elements of self-awareness and control, empathy and social expertness. When a manager at AT&T Bell Labs was asked to rank his top performing engineers, high IQ was not the deciding factor, but instead how the person performed regarding the answering of e-mails, how good they were at collaborating and networking with colleagues, and their popularity with others in order to achieve the cooperation required to attain the goals. This is just one example of the benefits of high EQ regarding communication skills, time management, teamwork, leadership skills and business acumen. After all, we've often heard of the "genius" with no personality, and the brilliant surgeon with a horrible bed-side manner.
If you'd like to test your emotional intelligence, there are plenty of options available online and at your local library.