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Irregular French Verbs: -CER and -GER verbs

Updated on June 10, 2012

Within the French language, there is really only one true irregular verb ending in -er! That verb is 'aller' - to go. It has its own unique set of endings for the different tenses.

There are however, three different groups of -er verbs that conjugate differently to the regular -er verbs.


-CER and -GER ending verbs

-CER
Rule:
Verbs that end in "-CER" such as lancer (used in the table below) have to have a cedilla c (ç) instead of the normal 'c' when the 'c' is followed by an 'a' or an 'o'.

This is because otherwise the sound would have been an undesirable hard 'c' like the one in 'cat' instead of a soft c like the one in 'ceiling'. Because all the other conjugated forms use the soft c (linguistic continuity), and because it sounds nicer (reasons of euphony), the cedilla Ç is utilised.

-GER
Similarly to -CER verbs, verbs that end in -GER conjugate differently for all of the times that the 'g' of a -GER verb would have been placed directly before an 'o' or an 'a', if conjugated normally.

Rule: An 'e' is placed directly after the 'g' and then the usual rest follows. For example, instead of nous mangons, it is nous mangeons.

This is because without the 'e', the sound would have been a hard 'g' like the 'g' in 'gold' rather than the desired soft 'g' like the 'g' in 'gel'.


-CER Irregularities: Lancer (to throw) Conjugation

Pronoun
Present Tense
Future (simple) Tense
Past (passé composé) Tense
Imperfect Tense
Conditional Tense
je
lance
lancerai
ai lancé
lançais
lancerais
tu
lances
lanceras
as lancé
lançais
lancerais
il/elle/on
lance
lancera
a lancé
lançait
lancerait
nous
lançons
lancerons
avons lancé
lancions
lancerions
vous
lancez
lancerez
avez lancé
lanciez
lanceriez
ils/elles
lancent
lanceront
ont lancé
lançaient
lanceraient

-GER Irregularities: Manger Conjugation

Pronoun
Present Tense
Future (simple) Tense
Past (passé composé) Tense
Imperfect Tense
Conditional Tense
je
mange
mangerai
ai mangé
mangeais
mangerais
tu
manges
mangeras
as mangé
mangeais
mangerais
il/elle/on
mange
mangera
a mangé
mangeait
mangerait
nous
mangeons
mangerons
avons mangé
mangions
mangerions
vous
mangez
mangerez
avez mangé
mangiez
mangeriez
ils/elles
mangent
mangeront
ont mangé
mangeaient
mangeraient

List of -CER ending verbs

All of the following verbs require conjugation as previously explained and detailed for "lancer":

  • annoncer - to announce
  • avancer - to advance
  • commencer - to begin
  • dénoncer - to denounce
  • divorcer - to divorce
  • effacer - to erase
  • lancer - to throw
  • menacer - to threaten
  • placer - to put
  • prononcer - to pronounce
  • remplacer - to replace
  • renoncer - to renounce

List of -GER ending verbs

All of the following verbs require conjugation as previously explained and detailed for "manger":

  • arranger - to arrange
  • bouger - to move
  • changer - to change
  • corriger - to correct
  • décourager - to discourage
  • déménager - to disturb
  • diriger - to direct
  • encourager - to encourage
  • engager - to bind
  • exiger - to demand
  • juger - to judge
  • loger - to lodge
  • manger - to eat
  • mélanger - to mix
  • nager - to swim
  • obliger - to oblige
  • partager - to share
  • rédiger - to write
  • voyager - to travel

Comments

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    • profile image

      Khushi 

      2 years ago

      Thank a lot very nice verbs given in it that we have never heard from our teachers....

    • profile image

      Akaash 

      5 years ago

      thanks a lot my homework is now clear

    • one2get2no profile image

      Philip Cooper 

      6 years ago from Olney

      Difficult subject well covered. Thank you.

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