ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

is it a matter of Acquisition or a Speech Organ Defect?

Updated on May 11, 2019
minhajiya profile image

Interested in writings articles about some linguistic and anthropological issues, and about other issues.

Since this phenomenon is very serious to this extent, the following questions should be raised: is it a matter of a speech organ defect or acquisition? Is this problem remediable or not?

1.introducing the problem

Some people in Galmima and Tinjdad in Morocco use the sound / n / in the place of the sound / l /. This latter seems to be absolutely absent. This phenomenon is very serious in the sense that some words lose their meaning because these two sounds are different phonemes and not allophones of the same phoneme. If the people of the cited regions speak English, for instance, most words of this language that contain the sound / l / will be absent and they will be replaced by with their counterparts. For instance, the word * light * and * night * differ only in terms of the first phoneme. If we substitute the sound / n / for / l /, the word * light * will be pronounced as *night*. So, in this case there is no difference between *light*and *night* in terms of pronunciation. This substitution makes the word * light * to lose its meaning.
Since this phenomenon is very serious to this extent, the following questions should be raised: is it a matter of a speech organ defect or acquisition? Is this problem remediable or not?

The problem of substitution of / n / for / l / is not a result of a defect in the speech organ that are responsible for the pronunciation of the sound / l /. This demonstrated by some educated people who use the sound / n / and / l / in their right position. That is to say, the people of the regions mentioned above are able to pronounce the sound / l /.

To see if the substitution of / n / for / l / is a matter of acquisition or not, we will display some experiments have been done for the purpose of solving this problem.


Experiment 1: we took a two year-old child who was, of course, in holophrastic stage, and we tested him to see if he could make distinction between / n / and / l /. We found that this child was able to distinguish these two sounds provided his parents use words that contain these tow sounds, otherwise he will not make any distinction between them.

Experiment 2: a four-year old child and six-year old child who do not pronounce the sound / l /absolutely were taken from one of the two places, where of course, this problem is diffused, to the city of Agadir, where the sounds / n / and / l / are used in their right position. After these two children had spent for one year in this city, they were able to pronounce the sound / l / and to distinguish it from the sound/ n /.

Experiment 3: a person, from one of the two places, taught some parts (surats) of the holy Quran to a nine-year-old child, from Ouarzazate, who had no problem with these two sounds. When this child had learnt by heart those parts, he read them with the pronunciation of his teacher, that is, he replaced the sound / l / with / n / as his teacher did.


Through these three experiments, we conclude that the problem of replacing/ l / with / n / is just a matter of acquisition and not a matter of a defect in the speech organs, or a matter of any other factors. On this basis, this problem is remediable and can be eradicated absolutely if the future generations of the mentioned regions take it into consideration. That is, these generations must make their children to be aware of making distinction between / n / and / l / by offering an environment in which these sounds are properly used in their right positions. This must be done in the first stages of acquisition in which the child begins to acquire the language of his parents. In addition, these generations must not be self-closed, that is, to be open to the people of the nearby regions where this problem does not exist.



    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)