ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel


Updated on May 19, 2012

The contributions of Jaina mathematics are sidelined not only due to ignorance but also due to the loss of many original works. Amongst the literature available the treatises Surya prajnapti,Jambu Dwipa Prajnapti date back to the third or fourth century BCE. But Sthananga sutra,Uttaradhyayana sutra,Bhagwati sutraandAnuyoga Dwara sutra were written much later. Unlike ancient Indian mathematic, which originated due to ritual needs and practical requirements, Jaina mathematics was the outcome of concerns with cosmology and philosophical deliberations. Jaina mathematics emerged after the conclusion of ancient indian mathematics and before the rise of classical age of indian mathematics which was heralded by Aryabhatta.


Among the great Jaina mathematicians the first who needs special mention is Acharya Virasena who lived in the 8th century CE. Apart from being a mathematician he was a philosopher and poet. His magnum opus was the treatise DHAVALA. He was the first mathematician who derived an accurate value of π (pi) and developed logarithms to base 3 (trakacheda) and base 4 (caturthacheda) He also developed a formula for calculating the value of the frustum. Mahavira who was born around 850CE was the author of the book GANITHA SARA SANGRAHA. Later there were a host of other illustrious mathematicians like SRIDHARA (850 – 950 CE) who wrote GANITHA SANGRAHA, NEMICHANDRA (980 CE) and THAKURA PHERU (14th Century CE). Thakura Pheru served the Khilji sultans as a treasurer in the court of the Khiljis. As Islamic architecture became entrenched in India during medieval period, Thakura Pheru in his work Ganitasarakaumudi derived formulas for calculating domes, arches, and tents. Pheru is also credited with providing a formula for constructing magic squares

There were in ancient India various schools of mathematics, one of which was in Kusumapura, Bihar. The renowned Jain saint BHADRABAHU lived here and wrote his scholarly treatise Suryaprajnaptiand Bhadrabahavi-samhita. In SURYAPRAJNAPATI the value of piwas calculated to a fair degree of accuracy and was known as the Jain value. The other important school of mathematics was in Mysore and Mahaviracarya who lived there made many valuable contributions to Jaina mathematics.


Permutation and combination Jain mathematicians were greatly interested in this and the treatise Bhagawati sutra contains rules to perform this. The Jain mathematician Silanka developed three rules pertaining to it.

Arithmetic of large numbers and categorization of infinity was another area of interest. Jain mathematicians were the first to conceive the idea of transfinite numbers and they classified numbers into three categories viz; enumerable,innumerableandinfinite apart from odd and even numbers. According to Jain mathematicians there are five different kinds of infinity. There was the infinite in one and two directions, infinite in area, infinite everywhere and infinite perpetually. This was a very novel idea developed by them, which was far ahead of their time. The Jains were also familiar with the laws of indices (though it was not clearly spelt out) and anticipated the concept of logarithm.

Their other areas of contributions were in the Geometry of the circle, Operations with fractions, Simple equations. Cubic equations and magic numbers. The potential for research in Jaina mathematics and its popularization is still great and needs to be looked into.


Submit a Comment

  • ram_m profile imageAUTHOR


    6 years ago from India

    Thank you Danddman, I will certainly write a hub on magic squares


This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)