Japanese ways of writing
1. Romaji - Japanese writing represented in English characters.
2. Hiragana - Japanese writing used everyday and used to congregate Kanji.
3. Katakana - Japanese writing used for borrowed or foreign words.
4. Kanji - Derived from Chinese characters of writing.
English Vowels Vs. Japanese Vowels (Booin)
a e i o u = English
a i u e o = Japanese
( ) How you pronounce
Ka Sa Ta Na Ha Ma Ya Ra Wa N
Ki Si (shi) Ti (chi) Ni Hi Mi I Ri I
Ku Su Tu (tsu) Nu Hu (fu) Mu Yu Ru u
Ke Se The Ne He Me e Re e
Ko So To No Ho Mo Yo Ro Wo
Syllabry (Gojuuonzu) Part 1
Ga Za Da Ba Pa
Gi Zi(ji) Di Bi Pi
Gu Zu Du Bu Pu
Ge Ze De Be Pe
Go Zo Do Bo Po
Syllabry (Gojuuonzu) Part 2
Kya Gya Sha Hya
Kyu Gyu Shu Hyu
Kyo Gyo Sho Hyo
Mya Rya Nya Bya
Myu Ryu Nyu Byu
Myo Ryo Nyo Byo
Pya Ja Cha
Pyu Ju Chu
Pyo Jo Cho
Devoiced Vowels ( Booin Nuseika )
Suki (pronounced as ski ) = Like
Kite (pronounced as kte ) = come
Long Vowels ( Chooboin, Nagaiboin )
aa ii uu ee ou/ou => May also be interpreted as double vowels
Okaasan = Mother
Otoosan = Father
Foutou = Envelope
Toori = Street
Suuji = Numeral
Oneesan = Sister
Oniisan = Brother
Biiru = Beer
Double Consonants ( Sokuon )
Note: N, before m, p, or b pronuounced as m as in my as in the Japanese word "Shinbun" meaning newspaper in English is pronounced as Shimbun.
N, before n, t, d, and z is pronounced as n as night as in the Japanese word Honda.
N, before k and g at the end of the word pronounced like ng as in King as in the Japanese word manga meaning comic book in English.
Personal Pronouns ( Ninshou Daimeishi )
Watashi = I
Anata = You
Kare = He
Kanojo = She
Watashi tachi / Ware ware (mostly by businessmen usage) = We
Watashino (Male) Watakushino (Female) = My, Mine
Anata no = Your
Kare no = His
Kanojo no = Hers
Watashitachi no / Ware ware no = Ours
Kanojo tachi = They (Female)
Kanojo tachi no = Their (Female)
Kare tachi / Karera = They (Male)
Kare tachi no / Karera no = Their (Male)
Note: Ra & Tachi here is the same
Informal Personal Pronouns
Boku (male mostly used by boys) = I
Ore (male) = I
Kimi = You (male)
Omae =You (male)
Mr./Ms./Mrs. = San, Sama
San,Sama is an honorific suffix used after a personal name, irrespective of gender (sex) san, sama should never be used after one's own name since this suffix is a mark of respect. Although Sama here by comparison is more honorific.
Tanaka San/Sama = Mr. or Ms. or Mrs. Tanaka
Note: San is also used or placed with regards to mountain names example is Fujisan
PARTICLES (Fuhenkashi) (Joshi)
It shows the relationship of a word, a phrase or a clause
WA = it has no English equivalent and shows that the topic preceding word or words are the topic of the sentence.
I am a student.
Watashi wa gakusei desu.
She is mine.
Kanojo wa watashino desu.
* to the rest of the sentence. Post positions
You are my friend.
Anata wa watashino tomodachi desu.
DESU (DES) = this corresponds to the English verb "to be" on what we call as "be verb"
(is, are, was, were etc.,) it is called a copulative verb because it acts as a kind of equal sign.
He is a boy.
Kare wa otoko desu.
She is beautiful.
Kanojo wa kirei desu.