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July 1st 1914 (Wednesday) (1914.07.01) Events, Actions, Deaths, and Births
Summary of Wednesday, 1st July 1914
July the First, 1914, was a Wednesday, just three days after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo. Their funeral progress can be found here
Austria-Hungary was determining her response; Germany was determining her strategy to take advantage of the situation, and beginning her manipulation of Austria-Hungary, and all possible protagonists, should the war Germany required, actually prevail.
It was a time of rapid change, in the air, at sea, and on the road. Britain and the United States were making strategic changes to their Air Force arrangements.
But Europe was not the only area of concern regarding armed conflict: the United States and Mexico were far from on good diplomatic relations. Huerta was gone; Carranza was in power, and the resolve of the Niagara Falls Conference, which ended on this day, was in the balance.
Naval Wing Of 'Royal Flying Corps' Becomes The 'Royal Naval Air Service'.
The uneasy marriage between the Army and Navy wings of the 'Royal Flying Corps' results in the formal name change to 'Royal Naval Air Service' (RNAS) for the Naval Wing, in Britain.
This name had been in official use since the beginning.
- The Royal Naval Air Service was the air arm of the Royal Navy, under the direction of the Admiralty's Air Department, and existed formally from 1 July 1914 to 1 April 1918.
The Military Wing kept the title 'Royal Flying Corps' (RFC).
From the official historian:
'the national air force was broken in two. The Army and the Navy had been willing enough to co-operate but the habits of life and thought of a soldier and a sailor are incurably different.'
Origin Of "A Cup Of Joe"
A "cup of Joe" is a term used by Americans for a cup of coffee.
This originates fro the name of the Secretary of the Navy, Josephus (Joe) Daniels, who, in June 1914 implemented 'General Order 99' which banned alcohol from naval vessels.
From then on, coffee became the strongest drink available aboard Navy ships.
Over time, a cup of coffee became known as a 'cup of Joe'.
United States Navy Establishes Its First Air Department
Aviation was formally recognized in the United States when an Office of Naval Aeronautics is established within the Division of Operations under the Secretary of the Navy.
Early in 1914, the Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels, announced that
“the science of aerial navigation has reached that point where aircraft must form a large part of our naval force for offensive and defensive operations.”
The Office of Naval Aeronautics was set up by the Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels, in response to the Chambers Report, produced by the appointed board of officers led by Captain Washington Irving Chambers (who had supervised the design of the first catapult for launching aircraft from the deck of a ship).
This was a comprehensive plan for the naval aeronautics service which recommended the formation of a central aviation office to oversee naval aviation.
The Chambers Board reported in November 1913. It proposed:
- an Office of Naval Aeronautics;
- test facilities;
- aeronautic centre at Annapolis (but went to Pensicola);
- assignment of a training ship (the battleship Mississippi);
- provision of 50 planes; and
- lighter-than-air equipment.
Niagara Falls Conference Ends
On the night of April 21st / April 22nd, 1914, American President Woodrow Wilson sent U.S. Marines into Mexico to seize the port of Veracruz, ostensibly to punish Mexico for not giving a twenty-one gun salute and an apology for the Tampico Affair of the April 9th, 1914, but really as an attempt to alter the course of the Mexican Revolution.
This caused an international uproar, and the United States was on the brink of war with Mexico.
In order to diffuse the situation, the governments of Argentina, Brazil and Chile offered to mediate a peaceful resolution. This was accepted by both sides with a peace conference in the neutral venue of the Clifton Hotel, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada in late April, and throughout May and June, 1914.
This venue was chosen, as delegates from Washington could attend on a daily basis, and Mexico, who had good relations with Britain, felt that the Dominion of Canada was a good choice.
A resolution was finalised in late June which required General Huerta to retire from office, and hand over to a new regime. In return, the United States would not receive any indemnities for its losses.
The conference ended on the 1st July, 1914.
However, the new Mexican Regime, under Venustiano Carranza, rejected the agreement. Subsequently, the United States withdrew its forces from Veracruz, and recognised the Carranza regime.
Deaths On July 1st, 1914
- Hungarian aviation pioneer, aircraft designer, and engineer, died at Budapest from tetanus poisoning from an open fracture to his right forearm, caused when his aircraft crashed on April 15th.
Born at Csalár on December 12th, 1883.
- American actress, died, aged 16, while filming the movie “Across The Border”.
Her horse threw her into the Arkansas River, and she died in quicksand on a sandbank to which she had been rescued by Owen Carter.
- American cinematographer, died whilst trying to save Grace McHugh. His films were:
- “The Range War”,
- “The Ace Of Diamonds”,
- “The Romance Of Copper Gulch”,
- “Bringing In The Law”, and
- “Across The Border”,
all produced in 1914.
Hermann Joseph Klein
- German self-taught meteorologist and astronomer, who determined the ongoing volcanic activity of the moon. The lunar crater Klein is named after him.
He was born on September 14th, 1844.
František Josef Mach
- who died at Kutná Hora, was a self-taught Czech bandleader and composer.
He was born on May 31st, 1837.
- Chief of Staff of the Italian Army from 1908 to 1914, died at Torino. His sudden death provoked many conspiracy theories, considering the proximity of the date of his death to that of the Archduke, and the beginning of the First Great European War.
He was born at Caserta on April 21st, 1852.
August Ludvig Storm
- Swedish Salvation Army colonel and financial secretary, and song writer. He published songs in “Battle Cry”under the pseudonym 'August S'.
He was born at Motala on October 23rd, 1863.
1936 Winter Olympics
Births On July 1st, 1914
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
- born in Tikrit, Ottoman Iraq, who was to become Prime Minister in 1963, and then President of Iraq from 1968 to 1979, following on from And ar-Rahman Arif, and followed by his cousin Saddam Hussein.
He died on 4th October, 1982.
- was born in Brussels, Belgium, but became a German slalom skier, winning a gold medal in the 1936, Garmisch-Partenkirchen Winter Olympics in the combined event. She also became an alpine ski coach and essayist.
She died on September 28th, 2004.
- was born in Winnipeg Manitoba to Gregory and Sophie Juba, and became a politician and Mayor of Winnipeg from 1957 to 1977.
He died on May 2nd, 1993, aged 78.
- born in Květná, became a Czech Catholic priest, and musician. Works: Česká mše z Andělské Hory (Mass of the Angels Czech Mountains); Zpěvy u jesliček (Songs of the Crib).
He died on July 11th, 2009.
- became a US Oscar winning screenwriter of:
- “A Place in the Sun”, in 1953, and
- “The Bridge on the River Kwai”, in 1957.
- He won the Golden Globe for Best Screenplay for
- “Operation Cicero”, in 1953.
- He died on April 9th, 1978.
Additional Events For July 1st, 1914
United States population was estimated to be 99,111,000.