July 2nd 1914 (Thursday) (1914.07.02) Events, Actions, Obituary, Deaths, and Births
Summary of Thursday, 2nd July 1914
Thursday came with the news that the Kaiser would not be attending the funeral of the Archduke Ferdinand and his wife in Vienna.
The progress of the coffins of the Archduke Ferdinand and his wife Sophia can be found here.
In Britain, two present and former Members of Parliament, one for East Birmingham, and the other for West Birmingham, died at their homes in Birmingham, this day. Joseph Chamberlain had suffered a stroke in 1906, but had retained his West Birmingham seat throughout the intervening period, although not attending Parliament, except for one brief visit.
Chamberlain's death at this time was all the more poignant considering his previous work to form an Anglo-Germany alliance, around the turn of the century, to alleviate the possibility of future war.
In the United States, President Wilson nominated a new Ambassador to Russia, without really considering the lack of experience of Russian affairs the nominee possessed.
Announcement: Kaiser Will Not Attend Archduke's Funeral.
Today, it was announced that the Kaiser will not attend the funeral of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife at Vienna, due to a heavy cold, reportedly brought on by his having become overheated in a boat-ride at Havele the previous evening, and a recurrence of back pain caused by lumbago, which attacked him after his morning ride in San Souci park, near Potsdam.
This was seen as a 'diplomatic' illness by those that reported it.
The New York Times said:
“One encountered in political quarters today quite a common belief that the Emperor's illness is what is known as 'diplomatic indisposition,' due either to a sudden decision on his own part that his presence at the Archduke's funeral as the only foreign sovereign might be open to misinterpretation, or to an intimation from Emperor Francis Joseph that it would be better on the whole if the funeral ceremonies were to be quite private.”
A Canadian Press Despatch reported from Potsdam:
“In court circles here it is said that the emperor's illness is of the slightest character and would not have prevented his trip to Vienna, the abandonment of which was dictated by his majesty's wish to spare the aged Emperor Francis Joseph the trouble and agitation of entertaining. It is surmised that a hint was received from Vienna indicating that the visit of Emperor William was not wished for under the circumstances.”
In his memoirs the Kaiser stated:
“I gave up going to Kiel for the regatta week and went back home, since I intended to go to Vienna for his funeral. But I was asked from there to give up this plan. Later I heard that one of the reasons for this was consideration for my personal safety ; to this I naturally would have paid no attention.” - Chapter 10, 'The Outbreak of War” - English Translation by Thomas R.Ybarra, Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York & London, 1922
In the 'History of the World War I - The Outbreak and the Causes - Part I', the incident is explained as follows:
“The German Emperor, King Alfonso of Spain, and some of the German kings had expressed the intention of attending the funeral, but at the last moment it was announced that the Kaiser could not go. Nor did any other royal personages attend. Intimations from Vienna, either that the aged Emperor desired to be alone with his grief, or that, on account of anarchists, he feared for the safety of his guests, caused all royal visits to be canceled.”
If that is the case, then the 'diplomatic' illness shows that the Kaiser was sensitive to the wishes of the Emperor, and wished not to divulge the reasons to the world, for whatever reason.
Kaiser Wilhelm, 1914
American Ambassador To Russia Nominated
U.S. President Wilson nominated George T. Marye, one of America's wealthy 'old guard' San Francisco bankers, with no apparent thought for the needs of the post, to take over the vacant position of American Ambassador to Russia, vacated by Curtis Guild, whose tenure terminated on April 24th, 1913, and which had been declined by Henry M. Pindell, in January of 1914.
Charles S. Wilson, the charge d' affaire, had custody of United States interests in Petrograd for the intervening 18 months.
The Russians were reticent about having an Ambassador, due to their anger over the cancellation of a treaty between the two countries. However, they did want a new treaty, and also access to markets.
Marye was confirmed by Senate on July 9th. He was a diplomat with whom the Russians became 'comfortable'.
Obituary for Joseph Chamberlain, British Statesman.
Joseph Chamberlain was a man of conviction who forewent political positions, and brought down two governments, to convey and promote his ideological ideas, particularly with regard to social reorganisation and readjustment of the plight of the common man for the better, and the utilisation of Empire to consolidate the economies of both the British Isles and the colonies, alike.
His work on the latter caused him great fatigue in his later years, and constituted a cause for his subsequent demise.
His life is set out as a chronology of successes (or failures, if you take the alternate view). Each stands (or falls) on its own merits, and constitutes a life of thoughtful change for the betterment of his fellow countrymen.
Chamberlain's Early Years
- 1836 - July 8th - he was born at Camberwell Grove, London.
- 1845 -1850 - he was educated at Canonbury.
- 1850 -1852 - he took further education at University college school, London.
- 1852 -1874 - he worked in the family business, with considerable success.
His Early Political Career
- he became a leading member of the re-formed Birmingham Liberal Association.
- he married his first wife's cousin, Florence Kendrick.
- he was elected chairman of the executive council of the National Education League, and
- he was elected a member of the town council.
- he was elected a member of the first school board for Birmingham
- Chamberlain was elected and re-elected as mayor of Birmingham.
- he retired from the family business with an ample fortune.
- he stood as a parliamentary candidate for Sheffield in the general election, without success.
- he summoned a conference of local sanitary authorities to clean up the evil conditions prevailing in Birmingham.
- his second wife died.
Quotes from Joseph Chamberlain
His Early Parliamentary Career
- he was returned to parliament for Birmingham unopposed, on the resignation of the seat by Dixon.
- August 4th - he made his maiden House of Commons speech, on Lord Sandon's education bill.
- he influenced the establishment of the new federation of Liberal federations, 'the Caucus.' This had a major impact on the elections of 1880.
- Election result: Liberals 349; Conservatives 243; Irish Nationalists 60.
- Chamberlain was rewarded, reluctantly, by Gladstone, in the new ministry, as president of the Board of Trade.
- Chamberlain demanded more vigorous measures in Egypt, after the massacre at Alexandria.
- he successfully negotiated with Parnell on the Irish issue, resulting in the “Kilmainham treaty.”
- February - no heed of his instructions to arrange the relief of the Sudan garrison were taken, and when, finally, an expedition was sent, it was too late to avoid Gordon's tragedy.
Chamberlain Confronts The Irish Problem
- he negotiated a scheme for Irish government on lines of semi-Home Rule combined with an imperial connection.
- May 9th - Irish devolution proposals came before the Cabinet. Proposals were defeated. Coercion bill and land purchase bill were then put forward.
- Chamberlain resigned, but resignation did not take place before the Government was defeated on the Budget (June 8th).
- November - he was returned for West Birmingham at the general election.
- Gladstone needed the Irish vote to command a majority, as Liberal seats had been reduced to 335.
- December 26th - Chamberlain, in a letter, discussed a federalist scheme for the British Isles with five separate parliaments.
- January - Chamberlain entered cabinet as president of the Local Government Board.
- March 15th - he resigned the office.
Boer War and Chamberlain
United States, South Africa and Chamberlain's Programme for the Working People at Home
- October - he was selected to discuss the Canadian fisheries dispute with the United States.
- February 15th - the Canadian fisheries treaty was signed at Washington. Not ratified by U.S. Senate.
- November - he married his third wife, Miss Endicott, daughter of the United States secretary of war.
- Chamberlain was returned for West Birmingham, with an increased majority. Gladstone was returned to office, on the pledge of Home Rule for Ireland, as the Irish vote once again held the balance in the House of Commons.
- Unionist programme included Chamberlain's proposals on old age pensions.
- he became Secretary of State for Colonies in Lord Salisbury's ministry.
- he influenced the Unionist cabinet in the Workmen's Compensation Act.
- New Year - South Africa was his main focus.
- he negotiated with President Kruger on the Transvaal issues.
- Bloemfontain Conference ends in failure to secure peace. President Kruger's subsequent ultimatum demanded military withdrawal and political abdication of Britain in South Africa. The second Boer War began.
Chamberlain's Promotion of British Empire and Other Alliances for Peace
- he worked in secret for an Anglo-German alliance - one which he was convinced was the chief key to the peace of the world.
- he was returned unopposed for West Birmingham at the general election.
- he successfully managed to get passed the Australian Commonwealth Act.
- he founded Birmingham University.
- November - he went to South Africa to negotiate a conciliatory settlement with the Boers.
- July 21st - the first meeting of the Tariff Reform League took place, founded to further Chamberlain's proposals on import tariff differentiation between Empire producers and others.
- August 22nd - Lord Salisbury dies.
- September 16th - Balfour's 'Economic Notes on Insular Free Trade' appeared.
- September 17th - Board of Trade Fiscal Blue-Book appeared.
- September 18th - Chamberlain (and other members of the cabinet) resigned.
- October 6th - he speaks at Glasgow outlining the decline of exports due to current fiscal policy, and the benefits of change, to exports, additional employment, and therefore greater subsistence for many. He proposed:
- no tax on raw materials
- a small tax on food other than colonial
- a 10% general tariff on imported manufactured goods
- reduction of duty on tea, sugar and other articles of general consumption.
- “The colonies,” he said, “are prepared to meet us ; in return for a very moderate preference, they will give us a substantial advantage in their markets.”
- Further speeches on the subject followed.
- January 18th - speech at Guildhall, where he exalted the audience to “think imperially.”
- July 14th - Albert Hall demonstration of reconstituted Liberal-Unionist organisation lauded Chamberlain's fiscal policy.
- November 21st - at Bristol, Chamberlain insisted on the adoption of his fiscal policy.
- December 4th - Balfour resigned on the grounds that he no longer retained the confidence of the party.
- January - Chamberlain was returned for West Birmingham, but the Unionists suffered a crushing defeat.
- February 14th - Balfour, who had been found a seat in the City of London, and reinstated as leader, succumbed to the pressure and included tariffs in his fiscal reform programme.
- July 8th - Chamberlain's 70th birthday celebrations take place in Birmingham.
- July 9th - he makes a prophetic speech:
“The union of the Empire, must be preceded and accompanied by a better understanding, by a better sympathy. To secure that is the highest object of statesmanship now at the beginning of the 20th century; and if these were the last words that I were permitted to utter to you, I would rejoice to utter them in your presence, and with your approval. I know that the fruition of our hopes is certain. I hope that I may live to congratulate you upon our common triumph; but in any case I have faith in the people. I trust in the good sense, the intelligence and the patriotism of the majority, the vast majority, of my countrymen.”
Almost immediately after, Chamberlain suffered a paralysing stroke. He never spoke in public again.
See half way through for Chamberlain.
Chamberlain's Final Years
- he was returned for West Birmingham once again.
From 1910 onwards, as for the previous four years, Mr Chamberlain remained in the political background, intellectually an abiding strength to his political followers. They continued, on his behalf, to work for his ideals in the development of a united British Empire.
He died at his house, Highbury, Birmingham, July 2nd, 1914.
His reforms concerning the colonies and Empire must surely be a contributing factor in the loyalty shown by the colonies, when required of them by the Mother country, when the great wars in Europe erupted.
Other Deaths On 2nd July, 1914
- Romanian writer, director, screenwriter and journalist, died at Campulung, Romania. He wrote in the magazine “Arhiva” under the pseudonym 'Emilgar'. He worked for the magazines: 'Evenimentul', 'Sămănătorul', 'Luceafărul', 'Albina', 'Convorbiri Literare', 'Flacăra', etc. He participated in the establishment of “Romanian Writers' Society” in 1908, and was its president between 1911 and 1912.
He was born at Lași, January 5th, 1878.
Sir John Benjamin Stone
- British Conservative politician and noted documentary photographer, died at his home in Erdington. From 1886 to 1890 he was Mayor of Sutton Coldfield. He was founder of the Birmingham Conservative Party and Member of Parliament for East Birmingham from 1895 to 1909, at the same time as Joseph Chamberlain was MP for West Birmingham. He was knighted in 1892. He was official photographer at the coronation of King George V., in 1911.
He was born at Aston, Birmingham, on February 9th, 1838.
Births on 2nd July, 1914
- was born in Radibor, and became a Sorbian Catholic priest, and a staunch opponent of Nazism.
He died on February 3rd, 1943, in Dachau concentration camp, from abdominal typhus.
- was born in Cleveland, Ohio, to become an internationally acknowledged American conductor.
He died on December 4th, 2004, at Siesta Key, Florida.
- became an American film actress of the 1930's through to the 1970's, with roles in 'The Three Stooges', and 'Abbott and Costello', movies, among others
She died on January 26th,1998)
Axel Segelcke Seeberg
- Norwegian translator, mainly from English. For example, he has translated several Roald Dahl, Agatha Christie and PG Wodehouse books.
- was born at Recife, Pernambuco. He became a Brazilian physicist, politician and art critic. He was considered the greatest theoretical physicist of Brazil. Albert Einstein complimented him as being one of the ten greatest scientists of his day. He was twice elected state representative for São Paulo.
He died at São Paulo on November 10th, 1990.
- born in Hannover, becoming a German Admiral, and the third most successful submarine commander "ace" in the Second World War. He captained U-57, U-552, and U-2513. He sank a total of 34 ships of about 200,000 tonnes, a destroyer ('Reuben James'), and a support ship. He was awarded the 'Ritterkreuz zum Eisernen Kreuz mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern' (“Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords”).
He died at Süßen, Landkreis Göppingen, on December 26th, 2005.