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July 4th 1914 (Saturday) (1914.07.04) Sports Events, Archduke Ferdinands Funeral, and Births
Summary for July 4th, 1914
It was a day of celebration in the United States, for Independence Day was upon them.
It was a day of celebrations in the sporting world, as the champions of Wimbledon had been crowned, and a world 200 metres record had been accomplished.
It should have been a day of mourning for the assassinated Archduke and Archduchess of Austria, but it did not turn out that way, as their burial was turned into a massive and vicious snub, perpetrated by Alfred, 2nd Prince of Montenuovo, Franz Joseph's Chamberlain, who hated Franz Ferdinand and Sophie with a vengeance.
I could find no significant celebrity deaths for this day.
Burial Site For Ferdinand & Sophie
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Buried
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, nephew and heir apparent to the Hapsburg Emperor Franz Joseph, and his wife and consort, the archduchess Sophie Chotek von Chotkova und Wognin, were laid to rest in identical plain white-marble sarcophagi, in a purpose-built crypt, under Schloß Artstetten, about 60 km west of Vienna, Austria-Hungary, because the archduchess could not be buried at the Imperial Crypt.
The funeral took place quietly, without any pomp.
Overnight the funeral car had arrived at Pöchlarn, the nearest village to Artstetten, coupled to a milk train. There a farewell service was conducted by local priests. Two simple plain black hearses were used to transport Ferdinand and Sophie from Pöchlarn to Artstetten, via a ferry across the Danube.
The crossing was conducted early in the morning, during a violent thunderstorm, with flashes of lightning lighting up the scene. Midway across, the horses were panicked by a clap of thunder; the coffins were nearly pitched into the Danube.
At one o'clock in the morning the ferry reached Klein-Pöchlarn on the northern bank of the Danube. At two o'clock, following a steep climb up the mountainside, the couple were finally laid to rest.
Why Were Ferdinand & Sophie Given A 'Third Class' Burial?
When the public, days later, learned of the deliberate disrespect shown to the heir to the Habsburg throne, there was a vast outcry. They were appalled, horrified and resentful, deploring its meanness.
But the Austrian Court considered the funeral a fitting end for an obstinate nephew with the audacity to rail against the hierarchy of the status quo within the Habsburg dynasty.
Even Franz Josef himself regarded the funeral a fitting "restoration of order."
He remarked to an aide:
"God will not be mocked. A higher power has put back the order I could not maintain."
That is, that the dynastic principle had been restored.
It all came down to the fact that Franz had 'married beneath his station'.
Sophie had been a lady-in-waiting to Archduchess Isabella before her marriage to Franz Ferdinand.
On her marriage, Franz had elevated her status to Fürstin and Herzogin, but, in the eyes of all other Habsburg's, he had committed a heinous indiscretion by his alliance with his Bohemian countess, and the concessions he had forced to elevate her status.
For these concessions, this misalliance, and such impertinence, Fürst Montenuovo (Alfred, 2nd Prince of Montenuovo), Franz Joseph's Obersthofmeister (chamberlain), ensured that even in death the couple would not be forgiven, and would remain beyond the Imperial pale, for so tainting the House of Habsburg.
Montenuovo, with the connivance of the Emperor, deliberately manipulated circumstances so that the funeral services were modest. The Press reported a “...funeral III. Class”, even though there was never going to be a full state funeral, as that was reserved for the monarch alone.
It was also impossible, because of Habsburg protocol, for Sophie to be buried in the Capuchin crypt in Vienna. Franz could have been buried there, but instead had decided to be buried with his wife, and had already built a chapel and tomb for them at Artstetten.
Lead Up To the Burial Of The Archduke
June 28th (Sunday)
Afternoon - after their murder in Sarajevo, the bodies of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were held at the home of the Governor of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Oskar Potiorek, awaiting embalming.
Day of the Assassination
June 29th (Monday)
After embalming, the bodies of Franz Ferdinand and Sophie remained in Bersibin Konak, Sarajevo.
First they lay in state together at the Town Hall for most of Monday.
Evening - their embalmed remains were put aboard a funeral train at Sarajevo. From that time the Armed Forces accorded both of the deceased every military honour at all stations where the train passed.
June 30th (Tuesday)
The train travelled through the night without halting.
Army regiments stood to attention with colours lowered at every station it passed.
The train rolled on to Metkokitch, Herzegovina, on the Adriatic coast.
Early - the bodies of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his consort, the Duchess of Hohenberg, arrived on the funeral train from Sarajevo, Bosnia, accompanied by the members of the household.
The town was sombre, being draped in black, with all the lamp posts covered with black crepe.
All flags in the town were at half-mast.
The station platform was full from army and navy guards of honour drawn up along its length. Behind them, stood mournfully, were the local authorities, school children, and citizens, of the town.
Bluejackets removed the coffins from the train-cars.
A priest said a prayer in their honour.
Then the coffins were conveyed, accompanied by a respectful drum-roll and the tolling of church bells, and covered with military flags and wreaths, to the royal yacht which was lying in wait in the river.
The yacht itself was covered with hundreds of floral offerings from military and naval officers, and civilians.
A general salute was fired by the guard of honour as the royal yacht departed.
A torpedo boat preceded the vessel down the river, and the governor's yacht followed on behind, where the members of the households of the archduke and duchess were transported.
The bodies were accompanied by the governor whilst they remained in his territorial waters.
The yacht now travelled along the River Narenta, with every village and hamlet along the way draped in black mourning cloth; their populations, headed by municipal officials and clergy, assembled along the banks; kneeling men and women bore lighted candles as the yacht passed.
All the while church bells tolled and blessings were offered by the priests.
When the yacht reached the river-mouth it went directly to the battleship 'Viribus Unitis', lying at anchor waiting to accept the bodies and to convey them to Trieste.
As she came alongside the battleship the royal yacht fired a 19 gun salute.
The coffins were then transferred to the after-deck of the battleship, that had been transformed into a mortuary chapel, and which was decorated with flags.
The ship's chaplain, in the presence of the members of the household and the naval officers, blessed the bodies once again, while the entire crew was drawn up in a circle around them.
9 o'clock - the battleship weighed anchor and sailed northward with the archduke's standard flying at half-mast.
The ship was escorted by a flotilla of ships and boats, steaming on to Trieste the following night.
July 1st (Wednesday)
Evening - the flotilla arrived at Trieste where the funeral caskets were transferred from the ship to a special train bound for Vienna, to the accompaniment of gun salutes, regiments presenting arms, and lowered colours.
July 2nd (Thursday)
The train continued its journey throughout the night and through Thursday.
Night - after several enforced delays, the train came to a halt at Vienna's Südbahnhof.
Here the jurisdiction and continuing spite of Fürst Montenuovo began, as he took over the responsibilities from the military.
There were ended the honours due to both of the deceased.
The train bearing the coffin's of Franz Ferdinand and Sophie had been deliberately delayed along its way to Vienna so that it arrived late at night.
This was to ensure that it would not be seen by the public.
No members of the Habsburg dynasty attended the station to meet the funeral train.
Only Archduke Karl, now Kronprinz and Thronfolger, escorted the coffin's through the deserted streets of Vienna.
Because of his morganatic marriage to Sophie, Franz Ferdinand was snubbed by the Habsburg dynasty and so received none of the pomp and circumstance normally reserved on the death of an Austrian Archduke.
What is a Morganatic Marriage?
With regards to royalty, it is a marriage between people of unequal social rank.
This prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to his wife and any issue of the marriage.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand had to swear a morganatic oath disinheriting his children before he could marry Sophie, even though she was a Grafin.
Hapsburg's were permitted only to marry members of specific dynasties.
After marriage she was not allowed to ride in the royal coach with her husband; however, she was allowed to ride with him on this inspection at Sarajevo, as he was acting as Head of the Imperial Forces.
July 3rd (Friday)
Emperor Franz Joseph travelled from Ischl to attend the funeral.
Protocol was to the fore on this day; but, protocol would not be completely denied, however.
Morning - 8 o'clock - the doors of the Hofburg Royal Chapel were opened so that the public could pay homage to the Archduke, laying in state.
Some 50,000 people converged from every district onto the Innenstadt; but most were turned away due to the briefness of the viewing period.
Stiff protocol would not permit Sophie's coffin to lie in state with a Habsburg in the chapel of a Royal Palace; only the personal intervention, and by special grant from, Emperor Franz Joseph, allowed her coffin to lie side by side with her husband's, but not as equals; Franz Ferdinand's coffin was larger and more ornate, and was installed some 8 inches above that of his consort.
The casket of the former heir bore the many insignia of his rank: the Archducal crown, the General's plumed hat, the Admiral's hat, his ceremonial sword, and all his principal decorations including the Order of the Golden Fleece; that of his morganatic wife bore only a pair of white gloves and a wide black fan - her elevations to Fürstin and Herzogin were cancelled; Sophie was to all present to be seen as a lady-in-waiting.
Of the many wreaths sent to the Chapel, there was that of President Wilson of the United States of America; but there were none from the Emperor or any other Habsburg; the only wreath from the Imperial family came from Stephanie of Belgium, Kronprinz Rudolf's widow, .
Noon - prompt - the public were turned away, and the doors closed to the Hofburg Royal Chapel.
4 o'clock in the afternoon - Emperor Franz Josef appeared, accompanied by Archdukes and Archduchesses but not by any of Franz Ferdinand's children; their mother was a morganatic corpse, they were morganatic orphans, so they were not members of the All-Highest Family.
No foreign dignitaries attended.
No Foreign Dignitaries Attended The Funeral. Why?
This was all down to Fürst Montenuovo.
Every monarch and President in Europe had wired his intention to come to Vienna; they were pointedly disinvited.
By return cable Montenuovo had advised them to:
"...kindly have your ambassador act as representative to avoid straining His Majesty's delicate health with the demands of Protocol."
The elderly King of Rumania and his consort were stopped at the border.
Montenuovo even tried, unsuccessfully, to make the children foot the bill for the funeral.
It was later stated that Kaiser Wilhelm II wished to use the funeral as an informal peace conference to prevent the 'inevitable' war.
This plan was foiled by the machinations of Montenuovo, and a last chance at peace passed everyone by.
So only the ambassadors came.
July 3rd (continued)
4 o'clock - Cardinal Piffl of Vienna performed the funeral services in less than a quarter of an hour.
4:15pm - the bodies were locked away again, and the premises vacated; no more mourning from the Habsburg's or from the public was permitted. There they lay, untouched.
Late at night - as they had arrived in Vienna the previous night, they were transported in the dark.
No procession was planned to take place for Franz Ferdinand and Sophie between the Hofburg and the Westbahnhof, but, as their coffins emitted from the Hofburg Royal Chapel, a band of aristocrats pushed past the police, led by Sophie's brother, to ensure the cortège made less lonely their traverse to the station.
From Vienna, their remains were transported by milk train and boat to the small Austrian village of Pochlarn, the village nearest Artstetten, Ferdinand’s castle, their final resting place.
No funeral procession was conducted in Pochlarn, as the remains had been deliberately scheduled to arrive after midnight - Montenuovo's spiteful plans, once again.
Norman Brookes Archive Footage
Wimbledon Tennis Championship, 1914
The first Grand Slam tennis tournament of the season, the 38th Wimbledon amateur outdoor grass court Tennis Competition for 1914, came to an end on this day, at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club (AELTC), in South London, having begun on June 22nd .
As it turned out, this was the last championship until after the Great War.
The men's singles was won by Australian Norman Brookes, on his first return to the All England Club since he first won there seven years previously, this time
6–4, 6–4, 7–5,
against the New Zealander, Anthony Wilding.
Brookes teamed up with Wilding to take the men's doubles championship trophy,
6–1, 6–1, 5–7, 8–6,
against the British pairing of Herbert Roper Barrett and Charles P. Dixon.
In the women's singles competition, the Englishwoman, and seven times previous winner, Dorothea Lambert-Chambers, again prevailed, beating another Englishwoman, Ethel Larcombe,
Unfortunately for Larcombe, she was also a runner-up in the women's doubles, together with her English partner, Edith Hannam. They lost
to the partnership of Englishwoman, Agnes Morton, and American tennis female tennis player, Elizabeth Ryan.
Larcombe, however, did manage to gain a Wimbledon trophy, when she partnered Englishman, James Park, in coming back from a set down, to defeat the Frenchwoman, Marguerite Broquedis, and the men's doubles champion, Anthony Wilding,
4-6, 6-4, 6-2.
Dorothea Lambert-Chambers PD Pictures
Other Notable Sporting Events for July 4th, 1914
In London, Briton Willie Applegarth set a world record in the 200 metres of 21.2 seconds, in the 1914 AAA meeting, having also won 100 metres title.
Births on 4th July, 1914
Nuccio Bertone (Giuseppe Bertone)
was born in Torino, and became an Italian automobile and Lambretta scooter designer & entrepreneur. He took over Carrozzeria Bertone from his father. He was inducted into the 'Automotive Hall of Fame' in Detroit in 2006.
He died at Piedmont, February 27th, 1997.
was born at San Biagio d'Argenta, becoming an Italian priest, poet and writer.
He died on December 27th, 2006, at Ravenna.
Baruch Korff (known as "the Rabbi of Nixon")
was born in the Ukraine, and became an Israeli activist. He emigrated to the United States in 1926. He was an active anti-Nazi, and supporter of the development of Palestine as a Jewish state. He was also an active supporter of Nixon, and defended him during the Watergate scandal.
He died on July 26th, 1995.
United States Independence Day Celebrations
Of course, there were Independence Day, 4th of July celebrations across the whole of the United States.
A video of one of those celebrations at Aberdeen, Washington, can be seen here.