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July 5th 1914 (Sunday) (1914.07.05) Events, Actions, and Births
Summary For July 5th, 1914
On this day, Sunday, two significant events took place; one in Germany, the other in Mexico.
In Germany, von Hoyos, of Austria-Hungary, met with German officials to determine whether Germany would back any actions that Austria-Hungary might take against Serbia, in reprisal for the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, in Sarajevo. The results of that meeting ultimately led to the First Great European War.
In Mexico, General Huelta, who had become dictator of Mexico, tried to obviate the pressures he was under from President Wilson, and Mexican revolutionaries, by holding an election. He was re-elected, but it was a 'false' election.
Although I could find no deaths of significant celebrities for this day, there were a number of births of significance.
Hoyos Mission : Council at Potsdam
German Assurances Of Full Allegiance With Austria-Hungary
In a council meeting on July 2nd, 1914, in Vienna, no agreement could be reached with Tizla, so it was decided that Count Alexander von Hoyos, the head of cabinet and closest adviser to the Foreign Minister Berchtold, would go to Berlin to determine German attitudes to the unfolding crisis.
Hoyos traveled to Berlin this Sunday, to gain support from the German Reich for the military intervention of Austria-Hungary against Serbia.
Hoyos holds a meeting with Arthur Zimmermann, the Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office, at which he urges that Germany should give the Habsburg Monarchy "... on this occasion a free hand against Serbia."
As the Kaiser did not have to attend the funeral of Archduke Ferdinand, he is able to confirm to this special envoy, whom he considers to be speaking for the Austrian Emperor, "... the full support of Germany," in the event of Austrian action against Serbia.
The Kaiser then consults his military and naval advisers before leaving for a cruise in northern waters.
On July 6th, the German Chancellor, Theobald von Bethman-Hollweg, confirms the so-called “Blankoscheck“ ("blank check"), to Hoyos, to get the war with Serbia started, which eventually leads to the Great European War.
To what extent the German side actually declared the 'blank check' is debatable.
It is also debatable to what extent the Austrian Emperor was aware of the Hoyos Mission and its endeavours.
During the period of debate about what Austria should do regarding Serbia, the Emperor was engaged in the proceedings following the death of his nephew, and the subsequent funeral of, the Archduke Ferdinand.
It was only after the return of Hoyos, with the 'blank check' assurances from the Kaiser, that he succumbed to the pressures, and agreed to abide by the decisions of the Austrian Government.
Vienna had not only planned a limited local war, but the leaders were willing to pull a large part of Europe into full-scale war, because they believed that the "multi-ethnic state" of Austria-Hungary would be stabilized and thus saved.
General Huerta Is Re-elected President of Mexico
The then president Francisco Madero reprieved him from execution.
On February 9th, students from the Tlalpam military college rescued Diaz, and Bernardo Reyes (who had been delivered to Mexico earlier by the United States) and, under their leadership, held the Ciudadela (the arsenal).
Hundreds of people were killed over the next few days as those in revolt and Government troops exchanged fire.
Finally, on February 19th, General Victoriano Huerta turned traitor to Madero, caused his arrest and that of José María Pino Suárez, and forced them to resign.
Huerta was made Minister of Gobernación; and shortly after he was constitutionally head of the nation.
Every effort was made by Huerta to obtain recognition by the United States, but President Wilson, believing that Huerta had risen to power by political murder, thus not by the will of Mexican people, refused recognition.
Wilson then demanded that an election be held, where Huerta would not stand for office.
Several foreign powers did recognise the Huerta regime, but Argentina, Brazil, and Chile followed the United States' example.
On October 10th, 1913, Huerta assumed complete control of the legislative and judicial powers.
He was now, effectively, a dictator.
The revolution sprung up under Venustiano Carranza, simultaneously with Huerta's seizure of the executive power, and was led in the west by Generals Buelma, Cabrera and Álvaro Obregón; in the north and centre by Francisco Villa ('Pancho Villa'), Felipe Ángeles, Pablo González and Antonio Villareal; in the south by Emiliano Zapata; and in Yucatán by Salvador Alvarado.
Huerta was confined to the central plateau.
The 'Plan of Guadeloupe' was formulated, and Carranza was declared the first chief of this national constitution.
The revolutionaries had numerous successes, including Villa's capture of Tampico (March, 1914).
There also took place the Tampico incident; and Huerta's refusal to comply with Admiral Mayo's ultimatum resulted in the American seizure of Veracruz on April 14th, 1914.
Urged by foreign ministers to yield to Wilson, unable to make loans, or to effect peace with the Constitutionalists, Huerta severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 22nd.
To negate the possibility of war between Mexico and the United States, the 'Niagara Falls Conference' was convened by Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, to find a provisional president acceptable to all parties.
This failed, and subsequently Huerta held an election, the result of which was his re-election, but the election was a fiasco.
[Huerta resigned on July 15th, 1914.]
Progress Of Universal Care Programs
In Norway, the Act on mothers insurance, free midwifery and maternity benefit, is approved.
Births For Sunday, 5th July, 1914
Alain Henry Marie Joseph de Boissieu-Déan Luigné
- was born in Chartres, and became a French military man. He led one of the last French sword-bearing cavalry charges, against the Germans, in 1940. On marriage he became son-in-law to General de Gaulle. Was chief-of-staff of the French Army from 1971 to 1975
He died at Clamart on April 5th, 2006.
- born at Kleinlützel, Switzerland, he became a cyclist of limited success.
He died at Dornach, Switzerland on May 5th,1987.
Eduardo Herrera Bueno
- known as 'Herrerita', was born at Gijón, Asturias, Spain, and became a midfield footballer, mainly for Real Oviedo in the Primera División of Spain. He played six times for the Spanish National team; once as captain.
He died at Oviedo on August 15th, 1991.
- was born at Budapest, Austria-Hungary, and became a prize winning Jewish Hungarian classical pianist.
She died on April 10th, 1995, at her birthplace, Budapest.
- was born in Bormio, Italy, and became an internationally acclaimed scholar of Roman history.
He died in Bormio, three days after his eighty-fourth birthday, on April 8th, 1998.
- was born in Odense, becoming a Danish actress and singer. Her early career was in musical theatre and operas. She subsequently appeared in 18 films, up to 2003.
She died aged 94 on April 11th, 2009.
George de Godzinsky (Жорж де Годзинский)
- was born in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire. In 1917 he and his family moved to Finland. He became a Russian-born Finnish composer, conductor, pianist and professor. He had many musical works to his name.
He died in Espoo, Finland, on May 23rd, 1994.
- was born in Skaistgiriu, Lithuania. He became a doctor of biomedical sciences, describing Lelio Syndrome. He also wrote books of fiction, and biographical essays.
He died in 2011, aged 97 years..
- was born at Potenza, Italy. He became an award-winning poet, a journalist, and newspaper editor.
He died at Florence, Italy, in June, 1982.
Jean Gilbert Tabaud
- was born at Saujon, France. He became, first, a classical dancer but had to give this up due to injury. He was taken prisoner in World War II where he started as an artist. He escaped back to Paris and made a living sketching portraits of Germans, there and in Normandy, under the name 'Juvee'. He also plied his trade in Morocco, and the United States, where he was particularly successful with portraiture of the Stars in Hollywood. Throughout the rest of his life he was a celebrated artist.
He shot himself in the head following various crippling diseases, on December 3rd, 1996.
- was born at Landvik, Aust-Agder, Norway. He became a prominent Norwegian businessman developing sea craft, and was a member of the Norwegian parliament from 1969 to 1981.
He died on May 6th, 1986.