ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Kingdom - Protista

Updated on October 10, 2015
Source

It includes unicellular, eukaryotic, microscopic organisms belonging to plants and animals. The cells have distinct nucleus. Mostly they are aquatic.
This kingdom was created by Haeckel in his 3 - kingdom classification. The protistans may have cell wall or naked. They may be photosynthetic or heterotrophic like fungi and animals. The cells have membrane bound organelles. They show Mitosis and Meiosis in their life cycle.
Protista consists the following groups
1. Chrysophytes
2. Dinoflagellates
3. Euglenoids
4. Slim Moulds
5. Protozoans

Source

1. Chrysophytes:

This includes yellow green algae (e.g.: Vaucheria), yellow golden algae (Desmids) and Diatoms. They live in fresh water or marine water. They float on water and form phytoplankton.

Diatoms
These are unicellular, eukaryotic, microscopic, photosynthetic, aquatic marine and chief producers of the oceans. These are also called pastures of the sea.
The cells are called Frustules.
The cell wall has 2 parts. Upper epitheca and lower hypotheca like a soap box.
Cell wall is made of cellulose and silica due to which cell wall is indestructible. Cells after death form sedimentation beds and form fossils. These fossil masses are called as Diatomaceous earth or Diatomite or Kieselguhr.
Cell walls show various kinds of ornamentation due to which diatoms are called jewels of the sea. They store food in the form of oil. Kieselguhr is gritty due to the presence of silica. So it is used in paints, nail polish, toothpaste, shoe polish, water and oil filters. It gives sparkling appearance.
Basing on symmetry there are 2 kinds of diatoms.
1. Pennales - Bilaterally symmetrical.
Example: Bacillaria
2. Centrales - Radially symmetrical
Example: Coscinodiseus Flagella are absent.

The cells are diploid. They show binary fission during vegetative, reproduction cell division occurs in the night. Sexual reproduction occurs by fusion between gametes. Zygote is formed that becomes Auxospore. It maintains the size of the cells. So it is also called rejuvenatory spores.

Source

2. Dinoflagellates:

These are unicellular, uninucleate, eukaryotic, microscopic, biflagellated, algal protistans.
They are aquatic, marine & photosynthetic.
They have yellow, green, brown, blue or red pigments.
Of the 2 flagella, one is longitudinal anterior and the other is inserted in the groove horizontally. They show 9+2 structures.
They show spinning movements. So they are also whirling whips. The word Dinoflagellates is taken from Latin which means 'whirling swimmers'.
Cell will is stiff with cellulose plates.
Nucleus encloses permanently condensed chromosomes consisting DNA only. Histones are absent. So the nucleus is called Mesokaryon.

Noctiluca (marine) shows bioluminescence. It emits bright, blue green light when disturbed.
Gonyaulax makes the sea red coloured and causes red tides in Mediterranean sea.
The red tides kill the firlees as gonyaulax produces toxins.

Source

3. Euglenoids:

These are unicellular, uninucleate, eukaryotic, microscopic, aquatic, fresh water motile protistans. They live in stagnant water. They show plant and animal characters. They form link between plants and animals.
Cell wall is absent. Pellicle made of protein is present around protoplasm. It is flexible.
A pain of unequal flagella are present anteriorly. The invagination in the anterior side has mouth (cytostome) gullet (cytopharynx) and reservior one below the other. Nucleus is present in the centre. Chloroplasts (Chromato phores) show pyrenoids. The pigments are similar to those of higher plants.
Eye spot or stigma is present on the reservoir membrane. It is photosensitive and helps to move near to light. They are photosynthetic (in light) and heterotrophic (in the absence of light).
Sexual reproduction is absent. Vegetative reproduction occurs by longitudinal binary fission.

Plant characters
1. Presence of photosynthetic pigments.
2. Presence of pyrenoids.
Animal characters
1. Cell wall is absent.
2. Presence of eye spot.

Source

4. Slim Moulds:

It is a group of protists.

  • These are unicellular, eukaryotic, multi nucleate and naked.
    Cell wall is absent (A cellular)
    It looks like moving mass of slime.
    These are saprophytic in nature. They feed on decaying leaves and twigs. They feed on bacteria, yeast and organic matter. They grow up to several feet and form Plasmodium when conditions are favourable.
    When conditions are unfavourable, Plasmodium stops moving and forms fruiting body enclosing spores. These are highly resist and viable for several years.
    Example: Physarum.

Source

5. Protozoans:

These are unicellular, eukaryotic, microscopic first animals. The term protozoa was coined by Goldfuss. They may be free living or parasitic.
There are 4 groups in it
1. Amoeboid Protozoans: They have neither flagella nor Cilia but bear pseudopodia for locomotion. They are unicellular, uninucleate, naked, irregularly shaped. They may be free living (Amoeba) or parasitic (Entamoeba). They show simple fission.
2. Flagellated Protozoans: These are unicellular, uninucleate, eukaryotic, microscopic with flagella as locomotory organs. They are free living or parasitic (Trypanosoma). This parasite causes sleeping sickness disease in Man. It shows longitudinal binary fission.
3. Ciliated Protozoans: These are unicellular, binucleate, eukaryotic, microscopic with cilia as locomotory organs. It shows nuclear dimorphism.
Example: Paramecium (Slipper animalcule).
Cilia also help in taking the food into its gullet. It shows transverse binary fission and conjugation.
4. Sporozoans: They include infections spore producing protists of diverse nature.
Example: Plasmodium Vivax. It causes Malaria.

Differences between Flagella and Cilia:

Flagella
Cilia
 
1. These are definite in number.
1. These are numerous in number.
 
2. These are definite in position.
2. They may be present anywhere.
 
3. These are long.
3. These are short.
 

Pahmella:

It is a colonial, temporary, non motile a sexual stage in the life cycle of a motile algal plant or euglenoids.

Kingdom Protista and Kingdom Fungi

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      kareena 

      3 years ago

      Really effective site i learn so anynew things from it try it

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)