ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Know About Hyperemesis Gravidarum - A Disorder Related To Pregnancy

Updated on September 8, 2013
Source

What is Hyperemesis Gravidarum?

Every woman experiences a sense of happiness when she first hears that she is pregnant and longs to see her young one. Unfortunately, some women loose this happiness soon when they encounter some complications related to pregnancy; like-Hyperemesis gravidarum. Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, also known as morning sickness, is very common and affects 70% to 85% of pregnant women. Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe form of morning sickness. This disorder affects various areas of women health, like homeostasis, electrolyte balance, and kidney functions, and leads to many adverse fetal consequences. The frequency of pregnant women suffering from this disease is very low (0.3% and 2%) and in many cases, leads to hospitalizations and associated increased medical expenditure. Many women take a decision to terminate the pregnancy ignorantly. This article tries to focus on different aspects of Hyperemesis Gravidarum like symptoms, causes, complications, currently available treatment options, etc, so that the reader has the knowledge about this disease and is able to take a rational decision rather than going ahead for abortion.

Causes of Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Studies have attributed various reasons to be the causes behind this disease, but the exact etiology (causes) remains unknown even today. Some factors which might lead to Hyperemesis gravidarum include:

  • Hormonal imbalance (an increase in the levels of hCG or human chorionic gonadotropin)
  • Raised levels of liver enzymes
  • General gastrointestinal dysfunctions associated with pregnancy
  • Raised levels of steroid hormones
  • Psychological factors like stress
  • Consumption of high fat diet
  • Prior infection by Helicobacter pylori which cause stomach ulcers, etc.

A strong correlation between the thyroid functioning and Hyperemesis gravidarum has been detected. The hormone hCG stimulates thyroid activity due to which the levels of the thyroid hormones are raised. Almost 60 % of these patients have been detected with transient hyperthyroidism. However, these patients did not have a previous history of hyperthyroidism and did not show the presence of goitre. A direct relationship has been found between the severity of vomiting and the degrees of thyroid stimulation. Generally, transient hyperthyroidism gets resolved by 18 weeks of pregnancy but, in some patients, this condition of clinical thyrotoxicosis continues during the later stages of pregnancy also.

Complications Arising Due To Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Hyperemesis gravidarum is destructive to the health of pregnant women, leading to acute weight loss, acidosis from starvation, dehydration, alkalosis due to loss of hydrochloric acid in vomitus and muscle wasting. It also affects the child leading to low birth weight and premature births. However, patients show different combination of symptoms. Generally the symptoms of this disorder are noticed at a peak level during 9 weeks of gestational age and subside when the gestational age is about 20 weeks. But in some women, this problem may persist throughout the pregnancy.

If left untreated, this disease might lead to some serious complications like

  • Oesophageal rupture due to severe vomiting
  • Wernicke's encephalopathy – A neurological disorder arising due to the deficiency of vitamin B
  • Retinal haemorrhage
  • Renal damage
  • Intrauterine growth retardation

These conditions can claim the life of the mother and the fetus.

Diagnosis of Hyperemesis Gravidarum

When you express the problem, the gynecologist may perform a physical examination and measure the pulse rate and blood pressure. Blood pressure is low and pulse is usually high. In order to detect the presence of dehydration, the doctor suggests laboratory tests like, Hematocrit (which measures the percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells) and Urine ketone analysis.

Treatment of Hyperemesis Gravidarum

The positive side of Hyperemesis Gravidarum is that, this problem can be cured by medical intervention. Even though it requires hospitalization for a short span of time, many times it does not require repeated hospitalization. Medicinal treatment includes administration of intravenous fluids, antiemetics along with vitamin supplementation.

  • Intravenous Fluids - Initial treatment option includes intravenous administration of parenteral fluids so that the lost electrolytes can be replenished.
  • Antiemetics - Antiemetics like Ondansetron, metoclopramide, or promethazine are prescribed to calm the stomach and control the nausea and vomiting.
  • Vitamin supplementation - Thiamine is generally suggested as a routine supplement to patients who suffer from vomiting for a very prolonged period of time.
  • Steroids - Steroids which directly act on the vomiting center of the brain like hydrocortisone can be administered.
  • Enteral feeding - In severe cases, when the patient fails to tolerate oral feeding, enteral feeding or tube feeding is provided after the initial severe symptoms subside.

A Natural Remedy to Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Ginger, scientifically known as Zingiber officinale, has been found to be very effective in reducing or eliminating the symptoms without any side effects. Its aromatic and absorbent characteristics, along with its tendency to reduce the formation of gas in stomach, make it very effective in the cure of Hyperemesis gravidarum. Ginger acts on the GI tract by increasing the motility and blocking the responses and consequent nausea feedback.

Protective Measures to be Adopted

Alterations in the maternal diet and modulation of the lifestyle habits can reduce the reoccurrence of Hyperemesis Gravidarum to some extent. A pregnant woman can modulate the quantity of meals consumed throughout the day. She is advised to take food and fluids in small quantities distributed over the day. Meals rich in carbohydrates and proteins help to reduce the symptoms. A pregnant woman should avoid foods rich in fats and acid. Good rest and keeping oneself away from stress helps to reduce this problem to some extent. Of course, support of the family members is very essential as it helps women to cope up with such difficult situation and all the family members can welcome a healthy baby.

My sources of information

1. Wegrzyniak, J, L, et al. (2012). Treatment of Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Rev Obstet Gynecol, 5(2): 78–84.

2. Kuscu,K, N. Et al.(2002). Hyperemesis gravidarum: current concepts and management. Postgrad Med J, 78: 76-79.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • purnasrinivas profile imageAUTHOR

      purnasrinivas 

      4 years ago from Bangalore

      Thank you SavannahEve

    • SavannahEve profile image

      SavannahEve 

      4 years ago from California

      My neice was just diagnosed with HG. Thanks for this! I needed to know more about it!

    • Dr Pran Rangan profile image

      Dr Pran Rangan 

      5 years ago from Kanpur (UP), India

      good write-up.

    • jabelufiroz profile image

      Firoz 

      5 years ago from India

      Useful hub on Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Voted up.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)