- Education and Science
LIVESTOCK IN PAKISTAN
LIVESTOCK IN PAKISTAN
Livestock is an important sub-sector of agriculture in Pakistan. It is contributing 50% in value addition and almost 11% to GDP which is higher than the contribution made by the crop sector (47.4% in agricultures and 10.3% in GDP). The activities of this sub-sector account is very important as 30-35 million rural population is engaged for their livelihood with it. Within the livestock sector, milk is the largest and the single most important commodity. Despite decades of neglect, Pakistan is the 5th largest milk producer in the world.
1. Motor power. Animals are used as motor power for agricultural operations. They transport agricultural products from one place to another. They contribute nearly 70% of motor power in agricultural operations.
2. Nutritional food. The livestock provides nutritional food such as milk meat eggs, butter, cheese for human beings.
3. Raw material for domestic industry. Livestock sub-sector is vital for the economy as it provides essential raw material such as hides, skins wool animal hair bones for some of the domestic industries like carpets, rugs, leather, footwear etc.
4. Contribution in exports. Some of the animal-by-products and their manufactures are exported to other countries. Their percentage share in visible exports is around 13%.
5. Contribution to GDP. Livestock sub-sector contributes about 10.3% to GDP.
The livestock population in Pakistan consists of buffaloes, cattle, goats, poultry, camels, donkeys, horses, mules. The quality of livestock and its products compared to the developed countries of the world is poor. The basic reasons for the poor quality of animals and their by products are:
(1) the tropical climate (2) primitive breeding methods (3) lack of proper care (4) lack of medical facilities, research centers (5) poor marketing facilities and (6) insufficient breading farms.
Problems of Livestock:
At the time of Partition, Pakistan was self sufficient in milk, ghee, meat, leather and other animal by-products. As years pass the import of milk , milk products and edible oil is on the increase. Pakistan, basically an agricultural country, cannot afford the import of milk, cream, fats, oil which it can produce itself. The main problems regarding the proper utilization of animal wealth are as under:-
1. Due to heavy pressure of population the size of land holding is gradually being reduced. The grazing grounds for cattle are fast disappearing.
2. The slaughter of goats, sheep, cows, buffaloes, is on the increase in spite of the fact that the prices of meat have gone up considerably.
3. As the prices of animal feed has increased therefore it has become difficult to keep animals in the cities.
4. The prices of milk cream are low in villages. The seller of milk ghee etc. are not attracted to breed the milk giving animals.
5. The marketing system of milk, ghee etc is not very well organized. The owners of milk giving animals are almost at the mercy of milk sellers.
6. Most of the villages are not connected with the cities. The urban and rural markets are, therefore not properly connected.
7. As the species of cows and buffaloes are generally inferior and also high priced, people are therefore not interested in rearing them up.
8. There are less milk plants all over the country. They are not sufficient to process the milk and variety of milk products.
9. The per capita availability of major livestock products as given below is not sufficient in Pakistan.
(b) Poultry: Poultry production has emerged as a good substitute of beef and mutton. The production of commercial poultry and poultry products are developing at a rapid pace in the country.
Development Strategy of Livestock in Pakistan:
(1) A new ''Livestock Development Policy'' has been approved. This will help in bringing radical changes in the current livestock production system.
(2) Two private sector companies have been established to increase the pace of development in livestock sector.
(3) Import of diary and livestock machinery equipment not manufactured locally is allowed duty free.
The Government of Pakistan with all the resources at its disposal is trying to improve the quality of livestock and their products in the country. The following measures have been taken to increase the production of animals and their products:-
(4) Purebred cattle is being improved through selective breeding.
(5) The 80% of total cattle population is improved through cross breeding.
(6) Strengthening of artificial insemination facilities.
(7) Use of improved vaccination. The present Government has announced many incentives to boost the production of livestock and poultry.
(8) For promotion of livestock and poultry the government has given fiscal incentives for the import of necessary equipments food items, medicines etc.
Fishery is also a sub-sector of agriculture. Its playing a significant role in the national economy by reducing pressure on demand for mutton, brief and poultry. It contributes on an average about 0.3% to the total GDP and 1.3% to agriculture. It is estimated that about 400 thousand fishermen and their families are dependent upon the fisheries for their livelihood. Fisheries is the main economic activity of the coastal bell of Sindh and Baluchistan.
The Government of Pakistan is now making every effort to improve fisheries sector. These include strengthening of infrastructure facilities, introduction of aquaculture techniques, improvement in post harvest techniques; up gradation of economic conditions of the fishermen etc.
Marine Fisheries Department is responsible for management, development and continuous exploitation of the fishery resources. During the year 2006-07 , a total of 87907 tons of fish and fishery products were exported earning $135 million.