- Education and Science
Learning Styles - Jung's Personality Theories
Learning is a primitive adaptive trait of all living things in the animal kingdom, which can be found in more developed states in the higher evolutionary level. Adaptive traits can be habituation, response, reactions etc. The learning styles, in human beings, are the tendency to receive, analyze and experiment ideas and concepts. How human beings learn, has been a subject of study since ancient times. Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC) has extensively written about learning.
Thinkers, theorist, psychologists and educationists have researched on learning and developed many learning theories. Carl Jung is one of the influential theorists of learning styles. He has categorized eight types of learning styles. Modern day learning styles and theories are more or less based on Jung’s learning styles.
Integrated Learning Styles
Mastery Learning Styles
understand ideas thoroughly
Understanding Learning Style
form conceptions and perceptions based on reason and logic
Self-Expressive Learning Style
to understand ideas and concepts with sense organs
Interpersonal Learning Style
contemplate on others ideas and give importance to social values
What is Analytic Psychology?
Psychologist Carl Jung’s theories of analytic psychology are elaborated in his books like Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology (1916) and Two Essays on Analytical Psychology (1928).
Jung, in his analytic psychology, differentiated personal unconscious with collective unconscious. Personal unconscious is an individual’s unconscious, and collective unconscious is the unconscious inherited from his/her ancestor. Jung defined unconscious as the combination of personal unconscious and collective unconscious.
The collective unconscious is made up of archetypes. Archetypes is instinctive patterns, with universal character, in human beings. Archetypes are expressed in human behavior and images.Archetypes include the persona, the anima/animus, the divine child, the great mother, the wiseman/woman, the shadow, and the trickster.
Psychologist Carl Jung
During his clinical observations in 1980s, Austrian psychologist and theorist Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis. In response to psychoanalysis, another notable psychologist and theorist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) propounded analytic psychology. Swiss psychologist Carl Jung’s personality theories, symbol analysis, dream interpretation, learning styles, and Electra Complex have tremendous impact on human behavior, arts, literature, psychology, religion, anthropology etc.
Jung gained reputation as a theorist when he published his concepts in Psychological Types in 1921 (English edition was published in 1923). Sometimes Jung is branded as a Nazi sympathizer because he had presented his highly contested views on Hitler’s Nazism. However, Jung’s contribution to modern day psychotherapy is immense.
Carl Jung proposed two types of attitudes in human beings.
Introverted: Introverted people prefer to think, work in solitude and keep thoughts inside. They are depended on their inner world for beliefs, concepts and understandings.
Extroverted: Extroverted people prefer to talk and work in groups. They are dependent on the outer world for their perceptions and understandings.
According to Jung, people are dominated by introversion and extroversion, and sometime these both attitudes exist in human beings but in hierarchy. He also categorized four functions of personality.
Carl Jung believed that the persona is dominated by one or more than one functions. He developed eight personality types by combining two attitudes and four functions of personality.
Carl Jung’s Personality Theory
Carl Jung’s Learning Styles are based on his personality theory. Before we learn about Carl Jung’s Learning Styles, it is necessary to understand personality types. According to Jung’s Personality Theory, there are eight personality types, and more than one personality types usually dominate a person.
Introverted Thinking: People belonging to this personality type are contemplative, discovering, theoretical, and seek self-knowledge. They develop ideas and concepts through their own internal understandings. Philosophers and artists have introverted thinking personality.
Extroverted Thinking: People belonging to this personality type are analytical and strategic. They organize others, and base their ideas according to the understandings of other people. Scientists are extroverted thinking personality.
Introverted Feeling: People belonging to this personality type are self-centered, and look inward for inspiration. They form ideas on their personal belief, often ignoring socially accepted concepts. Literature and art critics have introverted feeling personality.
Extroverted Feeling: People with extroverted feeling personality base their ideas on facts and socially accepted concepts. They are sociable, usually seeking personal and social success.Politicians have extroverted feeling personality.
Introverted Sensing: When people are motivated by their own internal understanding and do not give importance to objective reality, they have introverted sensing personality. People interested in classical arts have introverted sensing personality. They are intense, obsessive, and detached from social reality.
Extroverted Sensing: People belonging to extroverted sensing personality see things as they really are. They are not motivated by subjective or objective judgment. They are practical and hard-headed.
Introverted Intuitive: When people are motivated by their unconscious, they tend to have introverted intuitive personality. They are visionary, idealistic, even mystical.Psychics have introverted intuitive personality.
Extroverted Intuitive: Extroverted intuitive personality type forms his/her perception based on objectivity, and do not give much importance sensory understanding. This personality type is innovative and seeks change. Inventors have extroverted intuitive personality.
Learning Styles: Jung's Learning Styles
Carl Jung combined two types of attitudes (Extroverted and Introverted) and four functions of personality (thinking, feeling, sensation and intuition) to categorize eight personality types. From the theory of personality, he developed eight learning styles.
Introverted Learning Style
People with introversion are introverted learners. They usually do not rely on others and tend to form ideas on their own. People with introverted learning styles perform internal reflections and brainstorming to understand the things the way they are. They love to explore on abstract ideas and enjoy solitude.
Extroverted Learning Style
People with extroversion attitude have propensity towards extroverted learning style. These kinds of people are comfortable interacting with the outside world, and base their opinions and understandings according to other people. They are compatible with community and enjoy social interactions.
Thinking Learning Style
People who base their ideas on logic and do not give importance to emotions have thinking learning styles. They contemplate on rights and wrongs, and information and facts. More males are thinking learners than the females.
Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung
Between 1907 and 1912, Carl Jung worked in tandem with Sigmund Freud, and contributed immensely to psychoanalysis. When Freud was contemplating to make Jung his heir, Jung began differing with him. Freud believed mental health is entirely depended on childhood experience and libido whereas Jung gave more importance to immediate conflicts. Jung’s differences with Freud are evident on The Psychology of the Unconscious (First published, 1912; English edition, 1916).
After his disassociation with Freud, Jung developed analytic psychology where he proposed the theory of collective unconscious and the theory of archetypes. Most of Jung’s ideas are burrowed from Freud. However, like Freud, Jung did not believe the unconscious was animalist, and libido, violence and instinct were not always the driving force behind an individual.
Freud and Jung were very intimate, but when Jung deferred with Freud, he compared Jung with Oedipal myth. Freud was Jung’s mentor, even like a father figure. When the friendship began, Freud was 51 and Jung was 31.
Feeling Learning Style
When people perceive life and living based on their entirely personal feelings and emotions, they have inclination to feeling learning style. These people base their ideas and concepts, likes and dislikes, on their feelings. They are not only interested in analyzing their personal feelings and emotions but also about how other people feel. They give importance to their immediate emotional response. Comparatively, more females have feeling learning style than males.
Sensing Learning Style
People with sensing learning styles believe on objective facts. They give emphasis to common sense and practical way of generating ideas. They are interested in the outer world, focus on persent, and quickly adapt to social environment.
Intuitive Learning Style
People who generate ideas from intuition, and are interested in known and the unknown are intuitive learners. They love daydreaming and usually contemplate on abstract concepts. They comfortably handle challenges, but normally do not complete task at once.
Perceiving Learning Style
People who develop ideas suddenly, and often change their concepts have perceiving learning style. They are not organized, but can be adaptive to environmental changes. They love to multitask but do not care about finishing their works.
Judging Learning Style
Judging learners have clear conscience, they are firm in their opinions, and move according to plans and schedules. People with judging style don’t nurture ambiguous ideas but work according to set rules. They have strong opinions.
What kind of attitude do you have?
The Red Book by Carl Jung
During 1914-30, Jung recorded his own experience of imaginations, fantasies, dreams, and hallucinations. He began taking notes on his beliefs after disassociation with Freud. These confrontations with his own unconscious were collected in The Red Book. However, the manuscript remained unpublished. The Red Book by Carl Jung was published in 2009. Working title of The Red Book was The New Book. The name Red Book refers to the red leather cover in the manuscript. The Red Book contains 53 images drawn by Carl Jung.
The Beginner's Guide to Jungian Psychology by Robin Robertson, Nicolas-Hays, Inc. 1992
Collected papers on Analytical Psychology by Carl Jung, Ulan Press, 2012
Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2011