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Why Do Moths Swarm In Cold Weather?
They're winter moths (Operophtera brumata), native to temperate regions of Europe, the Near East and the U.S. The adults are only active for a brief period during the early winter, but their life's journey is an interesting one. The adults don't do any damage, by the way, but their progeny sure do. The damage to trees and shrubs occurs in the Spring, after their eggs hatch.
Originating in Europe, they showed up in Nova Scotia sometime prior to 1950. The moth was introduced separately to Western Canada around 1970 and is now also found in Washington State and Oregon, where it can have a negative impact on the blueberry crop as well as deciduous trees and perennials.
Descendants of the original "pilgrim" winter moths that arrived in Nova Scotia found their way to my little corner of the world, Southeastern Massachusetts, in 2003. For some reason, we were the first in the Northeast United States to get hit and remain the most infested.
The winter moth is now established throughout Rhode Island and has been picked up in traps, in southeastern NH, coastal Maine, southeastern CT and out on Long Island, New York.
So here it is, late Fall and into Winter, and swarms of moths are dive-bombing your headlights, festooning the side of your house, and plastered all over your lit doors and windows. Some are crawling...those are the girls...while the guys chaotically flutter around drunk on the pheromones the girls are releasing.
It Lives Unmolested By Predators
When you put a little thought into it, you'll realize that the winter moth really is a marvel among nature's many wonders.
Perhaps the greatest of their natural adaptations is that they emerge from their cocoon, which is buried in the soil, from late November through early January, which is a cold weather period in temperate zones.
They have no natural enemies lurking about because they're only active during periods of darkness, when birds that would prey upon them are roosting for the night. And bats, which would have had a field day with them, have long since returned to the caves and other venues in which they hibernate.
Of course, any insects that would have preyed upon them aren't around this late in the season, so they're one of the few insects that can truly relax and enjoy life.
But, they don't have any time for that. In fact, they don’t even have time to pause for a meal...and it goes downhill from there.
The Lovin' Is Great but the Afterglow Is a Bummer
The moths you see flying around are the males. The females have tiny little wings that don’t enable flight; so you’ll usually find them legging it up tree trunks or the sides of your house, but they can be anywhere.
The females emit a strong pheromone that attracts hoards of males. Lights attract hoards of males, too, which results in mass suicides as the hapless males dive into headlights of oncoming vehicles.
But those that can resist the lights will follow their noses to receptive females and mating will occur. Assured that his DNA will continue on, the male then dies. So much for the good life.
After entertaining her male suitor, the female deposits loose eggs on bark, in bark crevices, under bark scales, on buds, on lichen, or elsewhere. Then, with her only mission in life fulfilled, she, too, passes on. They must hate it when that happens.
Let the Damage Begin
The eggs over-winter safely and hatch from late March through early April, just before bud break on the trees and plants that host them.
What hatches is the larva, a tiny green inchworm that crawls inside, and feeds upon, the bud. This severely impacts fruits such as apples and blueberries, and destroys leaves before they've had a chance to develop.
The tiny larvae grow, and as unmolested buds burst into tiny leaves, they feed upon them. This often results in the defoliation of the tree or bush.
A healthy tree can survive a defoliation and will produce another crop of leaves, but the tree is weakened somewhat.
In what amounts to probably the only fun these little guys get to have during their short time in the sun, the green larvae can be seen suspended in mid-air, hanging from silken threads.
Breezes transport them towards the canopy of the tree, and a fresh food supply, in what’s known as “ballooning.”
They often drop to perennials on the ground and feed upon them; and in certain situations where topography and winds cooperate, can balloon into areas that hadn’t seen them before and aren’t expecting them.
Those folks are in for a big surprise in about six months.
Settling down for a Long Summer's Nap
Mother Nature makes an adjustment to their biological timer and the larvae cease feeding, dropping to the ground and burrowing in to pupate.
They then spin the cocoon that will entomb them, thus beginning their metamorphosis into the adult winter moth you'll curse in about six months.
Then all of a sudden, at dusk some night around Thanksgiving, the vanguard of the winter moth orgy-goers will emerge and the reproductive process will begin anew. They'll have a brief window of opportunity, just a few days, to sow the seeds of next spring’s crop of winter moth larvae.
There are biological and chemical controls that can be used in the fall and spring against the winter moths and their larvae. In late November and December, after the eggs have been deposited on trees, you can apply a dormant oil or all-season oil spray to the trunk and branches, as high up as possible.
The products are popular with homeowners because they're not insecticides, but highly refined petroleum that smothers the eggs and destroys them. Dormant Oil or All Season Oil are generally available in ready-to-use sprays or liquid concentrates which you mix with water. The mixture can then be applied with a pump sprayer or a hose-end sprayer, which can deliver the oil to a height of 20 feet or so.
When the larvae emerge in the spring, they can be controlled by many of the insecticides that are presently on the market, but if you're not a fan of chemical pesticides, there are a couple of products you can use instead.
One is BT (Bacillus Thuringiensis [kurstaki]), a biological agent that preys upon the larval form of certain insects, including the winter moth larvae. It is harmless to all other life forms and is available from various manufacturers as ready-to-use or concentrates.
Spinosad...pronounced spin-o-sid...is defined by Bonide as a biorational compound. That being a new term to me, I looked it up.
There is no legal or regulatory definition for the word, but the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers biorational pesticides to have different modes of action than traditional pesticides, with greater selectivity and considerably lower risks to humans, wildlife and the environment.
Since Spinosad is cleared for organic gardening, it would also make a good choice for folks who are concerned about using conventional pesticides.
Both of these solutions should be applied when the larvae are still small but actively feeding.
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