Mahalwari System in India
Mahalwari system was introduced in 1833 during the period of Warren Hastings. It was introduced in Central Province, North-West Frontier, Agra, Punjab, Gangetic Valley, etc of British India. The places where Mahalwari system was introduced approximately covers 29% of their holdings. The feature of Mahalwari sysatem was that it has got many provisions of both the Zamindari System and Ryotwari System.
Provisions of Mahalwari System
- In this system, the land was divided into estates. The estates were called as Mahal. Each Mahal comprises a village. If villages are too small, then two or three villages were merged and converted into a Mahal.
- The assessment was done for the entire Mahal and a fixed revenue was collected.
- The villages committee was held responsible for collection of the taxes.
- Ownership rights were vested with the peasants.
Moneylenders involvement was a de-merit. They were ruthless towards the peasants. The British use to collect high revenues.
- Zamindari System
Zamindari System was introduced by Cornwallis in 1793 through Permanent Settlement Act. It was introduced in provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Varanasi.
- Ryotwari System
Ryotwari System was introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820 in Madras, Bombay, parts of Assam and Coorgh provinces of British India.