Reconstruction of India After Getting Independence
India got its freedom in 15th August 1947. India began to enjoy the air of freedom after a long imperialist colonization of different powers. The people of the country got more awareness against colonial rule by the influence of many ebullient leaders and social workers. At last the people of India won the challenge of beating foreign domination. India declared as an independent country after the Second World War, that was actually a tragic time. Because the economic and social system of India was totally altered or mixed with numerous problems like famine, deceases, political instability, linguistic issues, partition of the country etc. Before the declaration of independence, there were many arguments for and against the partition of the country. By the end India divided and the modern Pakistan arose as a new country. On the Indian side there were many hard works required to build a country by overcoming the existed issues. Here this hub is aimed to discuss very briefly about the process of developing India as a country.
Integration of Scattered States
After the partition of the country there were many other problems. At the time of independence India consisted of about 575 princely states. Moreover some of these states were in a dilemma of joining either with India or Pakistan. Any way the integration of these scattered states was a difficult task. At last with the help of eminent national leaders India solved this issue even there arose many difficulties.
At the time of independence the autonomy was given for every princely states for joining with India or Pakistan or even continue as an independent state. But majority of the princely states joined immediately either with Indi9a or Pakistan. Sardar V Patel (Home Minister of India) with his secretary V.P Menon took the task and invited all the princely states to join with India. Since it was more difficult to continue as an independent state within India, all of them accompanied to Indian union except Junagadh, Travancore, Kashmir and Hyderabad.
Travanncore: Travancore was an important state in southern India. C.P Ramaswami Iyyar was the diwan or ruler of Travancore, who declared that Travancore will stand as an independent state. Since Travancore situated at the southern end of India, the argument of Diwan was actionable. But unfortunately, a wide mass movement arose in the state. Further Diwan was attacked. Finally Diwan escaped and Travancore declared its merger to Indian union.
Hyderabad: Hyderabad was one of the richest states in India. Where Hindu people were the majority while the ruler was a Muslim. He decided to continue as aN independent state within the Indian boundary. For that he prepared army force. By the end Indian army intervened in Hyderabad and finally the state merged to Indian union.
Junagadh: Junagadh was a small princely state in India, which was ruled by a Muslim ruler called Nawab. The majority of its population was Hindus. Initially Nawab wanted to join with Pakistan. But people were not favorable for Nawab’s argument. At last there conducted poll in 1948, by which people was in favor joining with Indian union.
Kashmir was an important state, which created many difficulties in the process of integration of states. Even today there exist border issues. The Kashmir issue becomes a popular political issue and which discussed in many meetings including United States. There were few other places which was controlled by French power like Pondicherry, Mahi, Chandra Nagar and Karakkal. These places were joined in Indian union in 1954 after many discussions and talks. Goa was another state which was under the control of Portuguese. Later Goa joined in Indian union in 17th December 1961 after the intervening of Indian army. By 1950 almost all the princely states joined in Indian union.
Reorganization of States Based on Language
Even the challenge of integration of princely states to Indian union was much successful there arose another challenge. India consisted different languages, culture, people etc. At the time of independence, the reorganization of Indian states was not scientific or systematic. Because, the border of these different states was not determined. So, gradually there arose the requirement to reorganize Indian states based on language. There were two committees appointed in 1948 to study the linguistic reorganization of Indian states. These committees were not supported such an action. Later many arguments and mass movements arose from the part of people itself to restructure Indian states based on language.
The first linguistic based state was Andra Pradesh. Its language was Telungu. A movement arose in Andra under the leadership of Sree Ramalu, who was a complete Gandhian. He continues strike until his last breath. There after people become more dangerous. At last the Government of India passed an Andra State Act in 1st October 1953. And Andra become the first linguistic based state in India.
As an impact of the formation of Andra Pradesh India witnessed many arguments and movements for formulating new states based on language. Then the Government of India appointed a committee in 1953. Justice Fasal Ali, Sardar K.M Panikkar, H Kunsru were the committee members. They submitted a report in 1955. This was more favorable to the formation of new states based on language. Initially 14 states and 6 Union territories were allotted. There after many rearrangements happened. So, today the number of states doubled. In short, this action helped Indian people to love their regional culture and languages.
Making of Constitution
Constitution of any country is more vital for its smooth forward movements. Indian constitution is one of the bulky constitutions in the world. There were many voices for making a constitution for India even before the independence. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sachidananda Sinha, Dr. B.R Ambedkar etc were the main brain of the making of constitution. Dr. B.R Ambedkar appointed as the chairman of the drafting committee. Dr. B.R Ambedkar with his colleagues presented the draft of the constitution before the country. Later many alterations happened. At last the constitution came in to reality in 26th January 1950. The making of constitution took about 2 years of hard work. Indian constitution was highly referred from US constitution, British constitution, Swiss constitution, Australian constitution etc. along with these qualities many other features also envisaged in the constitution like equality, freedom, many rights etc.
India becomes an independent country in 1947. Since India is a wide country, it was more difficult to set up its social and economical structure. The eminent leaders and the freedom fighters of the country took this challenge and they did hard work for the country’s empowerment. As mentioned above making of constitution and integration of princely states were the basic challenge for India even there existed numerous problems.