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Making of stone tools in the period of Neolithic age
Period of the Neolithic age
This period lasted from about 8,000 BC till about 4,000 BC. The tools of this New Stone Age were more advanced than earlier tools, much sharper than the tools of Mesolithic Period. They sparkled due to polishing technique used over them. Tools of this period were axes, sickles, spears and arrow heads.
Making of tools
Tools belonging to the three Stone Age periods were found at many places. Stone was easily available at time, therefore, most of the tools were made of stone. Early tools were made from crude stone and were used for particular needs. Later, they discovered flint, a type of stone and used it for making tools and weapons. Flint has special qualities, it can chip easily and can be molded into different shapes.
Small and big stones were used to make tools and weapons. Axe head, hammers and choppers were made from big stones. The Axe head was tied to a stick which made it a more efficient tool. Knives and scrapers were made from small pieces of stones. Arrows and spears made from smaller stones were used to hunt animals.
Techniques of tool making
The stone tools were produced by two distinct techniques.
Stone on stone:- In this method, one hand of the toolmaker firmly held stone or re from which the tool was to be made. With other hand, another stone was d as a hammer. Hammer stone was used to strike off flakes from the core stone till the required shape and size obtained.
Pressure flaking:- In this method, the core stone was placed on a firm ground or surface. The hammer stone was placed on a piece of bone or stone that was on the core to remove flakes that could be shaped into tools.
Uses of stone
Uses of stone
The stone tools were used to dig the ground, hunt animals and skin them, cut trees, scrape the barks of trees, chop meat, fruits and wood and to stitch animals skins for making clothes.
The discovery of light fire
With passing time, early humans learnt to light fire, which is considered as one of their greatest discoveries. Perhaps they rubbed two stones together, accidentally and the sparks fell on some dry leaves that went up in flames.
The discovered that the flesh of animals tasted better when heated on fire and learnt cooking.
Neolithic age pot
Early humans made colorful pictures on the walls, inside the caves. They made the color by grinding together different – colored stones. Pictures were painted by them on rocks using bamboo brushes.
Early humans lived in caves and they decorated them with paintings on the walls. These drawings were of running wild horses, bison, bears, stags and herds of other animals. Some of these are found in Madhya Pradesh and Southern Uttar Pradesh. Red, green, white and ocher colors are used in the paintings.
These paintings also show men hunting (either in groups or alone), riding, women grinding and preparing food and dancing.
Invention of the wheel
Invention of the wheel was a very important step towards the development of the early humans. The invention of wheel also resulted in improved pottery – making.