- Education and Science»
The functions which describe managerial
job, when put together, make up the management process. This process
is analyzed into key functions of management viz., planning,
organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Planning,
organizing and controlling which deal mostly with non-human aspects
are known as mechanics of management, whereas staffing and direction
which are primarily concerned with human aspects constitute dynamics
of management. In the conceptual scheme, though the functions are
listed out in a sequence, I practice they are interlocked as a
system. As all functions are not equally important for all managers,
time spent by them for each of these functions varies according to
their levels in the organization. These functions has been discussed
Planning: Planning refers to anticipate the opportunity, problems and conditions and choosing from among the alternative future courses of action. The planning process generally includes the following activities.
Forecasting is looking ahead to anticipate the opportunity, problems and conditions in a future period of time.
Establishing objectives means setting the end results to be accomplished by directing organizational efforts.
Programming is establishing sequence and priority of actions to be followed in the attainment of the objectives.
Scheduling is deciding on time sequence for program steps.
Budgeting is allocation of resources to minimize costs.
Establishing procedures means developing and applying standardized methods of performing a specific work.
Developing policies involve establishment and interpretation of standing decisions that apply to repetitive questions and problems of significance to be organization as a whole.
Organizing function: The organizing function of management is the process of defining and grouping of activities and creating authority relationship among them. It consists of
Developing the organization structure which involves identification of task and grouping them into units or departments for performance.
Delegating authority to the managers and making him responsible for group performance.
Establishing relations creating conditions necessary for mutually fooperative efforts of people in the organization.
Staffing: Planning the organization with suitable personnel constitutes the staffing function. It involves selection, training and development, compensation, and appraisal of subordinates by the manager. Manpower planning and manpower management looks after these activities and try to ensure suitable methods of remuneration and performance appraisal of the employees.
Directing Function: involves managing people and the work through the means of motivation, proper leadership, effective communication and coordination. A manager must develop ability to command. He should issue orders and instructions without arousing any resentment among the subordinates. He must be able to secure willing obedience from his subordinates without destroying their initiative and creativity. Moreover, it requires a sound communication system to enable exchange of ideas and information for common understanding.
Controlling Function: enables management to ensure that achievement is in accordance with the established plans it involves:
Establishing performance standards for evaluating results.
Performance on the basis of records and reports on the progress of work.
Performance evaluation against the standards set.
Corrective action to regulate operations, remove deficiencies and improve performance
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