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Manufacturing Industries In India: Electronic Industry And Petrochemical
This industry covers a wide range of products including television sets, transistor sets, telephone exchanges, cellular telecom, paging, computers and varied equipment for post and telegraph, defense, railway and meteorological department. It is practically a post-Independence phenomenon and has revolutionized the life-style of the Indian masses in the recent past.
1. Electronic Goods
Bengaluru is the largest centre of electronics goods, production and is rightly termed as the Electronic Capital of India, with a view to develop broadcasting and telecommunications. The Indian Telephone Industries (ITI), the first government undertaking to be set up after Independence was established near Bengaluru in 1950 with an ultimate capacity of 25000 exchange lines and an equal number of instruments. At present, it has diversified its production range to meet the needs of the post and telegraph departments, railways, defense, overseas communication services and electricity boards. The range includes automatic telephone switching systems, teleprinter exchanges, long distance transmission systems and electronic test instrument and components.
The Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BEL), another public sector unit at Bengaluru was set up in 1956 to meet the electronics needs of the defense services, All India Radio and the meteorological department.
The Electronics Corporation of India Ltd. (ECIL) was set up in Hyderabad in 1970. The unique feature of this unit is the total absence of any foreign collaboration for the know-how. It manufactures transistorized modular systems for nuclear applications and for use in medical, agricultural and industrial fields. Components like wire wound and metal oxide resistors, analog computers and online digital process control computers. It also has a well-equipped laboratory where tests are carried out.
2. Software Industry
The software has emerged as a major industry in the field of electronics. This industry made a modest beginning in the 70's and by mid-80's the forecasters, analysts and policy planners started understanding the potential of computer software applications. The industry achieved major breakthrough in the 1990s and is now one of the most important industries of India. The main cause of the rapid development of the software industry is its vast reservoir of technically skilled manpower which has transformed India into a software super power with a compound annual growth of about 52%. Between 1991 and 1996, India's software sector has expanded almost twice as fast as the world leading US software industry did during the same period although from a smaller base. Today, India is a country that offers cost, effectiveness, great quality, high reliability, speedy deliveries and above all, the use of state of the art technologies in the software industry. The year 1995-96 was a boom year for the Indian computer industry. India's Information Technology (IT) really exploded in that year. India is now in a position to capture the software market even in some of the advanced countries like the USA, Japan and some of the European countries. In India, Bengaluru and Hyderabad have emerged as the leading centres of software industries.
3. Television Industry
The television industry has also grown tremendously in the past few years. It is now asserted that TV has entered the smallest of houses and the tiniest of villages and communities. The VCR industry has suffered heavy setback due to spurt in Cable TV especially in big urban areas.
4. Audio Systems
The production of audio systems has registered a phenomenal growth during the recent past. The audio industry can broadly be classified as mono players, stereo players, mini systems, CD based systems and car audios. The mono players and stereo players contribute more than 50% of the market. The top three players in the market are Philips, BPL and Videocon. The main centres of production are Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Pune.
5. Space Technology and Electronics
Indian electronics industry is also contributing a lot to space technology. India has launched several indigenously built satellites including Apple, INSAT 1 series, and INSAT 2 series. The remote sensing program of the National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) at Hyderabad and satellite launching station at Sriharikota (SHAR) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in Bangalore have become the pillars of this Industry. M/s Antrix Cooperation, Bengaluru, of the Department of Space was established in 1992 with access to resources of Indian Space Industry and is the apex marketing agency for subsystems and components for satellites and provide launch facilities and trekking and training services.
PSLV was technologically the most challenging endeavor of the Indian Space Program till date. It was also the first operational launch vehicle of ISRO capable of lifting 1000-2000 kilogram satellites and putting them in polar sub synchronous orbits. The successful launch of PSLV-C3 in 2002 with two foreign satellites marked the beginning of the marketing of Indian space vehicle launch services. During the past four years, ISRO has successfully mastered even the launching of GSLVs. The first satellite, GSLV D-1 was launched on 18 April, 2001, placing a 1540 kg satellite, GSAT-1, in a geo-synchronous transfer orbit. Then, on 8 May 2003, ISRO launched GSLV-D2, carrying the 1800 kg satellite GSAT-2, into geostationary orbit, at the right height, the right speed and the right direction.
Petrochemicals are those chemicals and compounds which are derived from petroleum resources. These chemicals are used for manufacturing a large variety of articles such as synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, ferrous and non ferrous metals, plastics, dyestuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals and insecticides.
- This industry mainly derives its raw materials from petroleum, LPG and coal. Cracking of petroleum increases the production of petroleum polymerization process.
- Polymerization is again used to produce petroleum by-products like plastics, synthetic rubber, synthetic fibre, PVC, detergents and others. Its major raw materials are collected from coal and petroleum fields as these industries are located/ concentrated in petroleum and coal field regions.
Products of Petrochemical Industry
Polythene, vinyl, PVC of plastic group, nylon, dacron, tetron, terylene, acrilon of synthetic fibre group and synthetic rubber. Gradually traditional raw materials are being replaced by petrochemical products, both in domestic sectors and industrial sectors.
- economically stable
- cheaper as produced at mass scale
- raw material is easily available
- not dependent on agricultural raw material as in case of jute.
The first petrochemical complex was established by Union Carbide India Ltd. at Trombay in 1966. Entire technology and management is controlled by multinational Union Carbide. It produces polypropylene, ethyl acetate, butyl spirit etc.. The Udex plant at Koyali Refinery (Gujarat) for the production of benzene and toluene was commissioned in 1969. It gets its raw materials from nearby refineries. The Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd. (IPCL) was the first public sector enterprise, incorporated in March 1969 at Jawaharnagar (near Vadodara) in Gujarat. This company is responsible for the manufacture and distribution of various petrochemicals such as polymers, synthetic organic chemicals and polyester fibres. Petrofils Cooperative Ltd. (PCL) is a joint venture company of Government of India and Weavers Cooperative Society. It produces polyester filament yarn at its three plants located at Vadodara, and Naldhari in Gujarat. Petrochemical complex at Bongaigaon is an adjunct to the oil refinery located here. It produces polyester fibre and orthoxycline. There are proposals of setting up 2 more such complexes at Haldia and Barauni. India produces a large number of aromatic chemicals. The production of many chemicals including menthol and camphor has shown an upward trend in recent years. Apart from those plants a number of petrochemical projects are now underway. Among these, Patal Ganga project near Hazira by Reliance Group and Haldia Petrochemical are notable.
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