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Manufacturing Industries In India: Major Industrial Regions
Major Industrial Regions
Major Industrial Regions In India
Major industrial regions of India have developed in the vicinity of the hinterland of the ports of Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai. These ports were developed by the British as industrial bases because hinterlands of these ports were very rich in raw materials, power and markets. Moreover, transportation was easy because of the ports. Major Industrial Regions In India are:
- Bombay - Pune Region
- The Ahmedabad-Vadodara Region
- Hoogly or Kolkata-Howrah Region
- Chotanagpur Plateau or Damodar Valley Region
- Southern Region (The Coimbatore, Bengaluru Industrial Region)
- Ganga-Yamuna Plain comprising Delhi and adjoining region of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan
Bombay - Pune Region
The growth of this region was basically due to the rich hinterland of raw cotton produced on the black lava soil of Maharashtra. The Opening of the first railway track in 1853 between Mumbai and Thane and opening of Suez Canal in 1869 led to the development of Mumbai port.
The factors responsible for the concentration of textile industries in this belt following the first cotton textile industry set up in 1869 were:
- The rich supply of the raw material, cotton, from the black soil area of Narmada and Tapti basins and ideal humid climate of the region.
- Supply of power from Western Ghats.
- Plenty of skilled labor from the neighboring regions.
- Presence of Mumbai port being well connected with the international trade.
- The excellent communication with the hinterland by rail and road.
With the development of cotton textile industry, the chemical industry developed, too. With the discovery of Mumbai High and setting up of petroleum refineries the region became a base for petrochemical industries.
In addition to cotton textile, chemical and petrochemical industries this region has the major industries of engineering goods, leather, synthetic and plastic goods, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine and tools and fertilizers.
This region includes Greater Mumbai, Thane, Kalyan and Pimpri to Pune. With the development of industries, this region is facing serious problems of congestion. To solve this problem, New Mumbai is being developed for the expansion of industry in this area.
The Ahmedabad-Vadodara Region
This region, too, mainly consists of cotton textile industries. It corresponds with the rich cotton-growing areas of the black soil tracts of Gujarat.
The factors for the development of this region were:
- A steady supply of raw cotton.
- The proximity to the major port, Kandla on the Gujarat coast. (Kandla is the only port having `free trade zone' facility in India).
- Availability of cheap land and cheap skilled labor.
- The discovery of oilfields at Ankleshwar near Vadodara in Gujarat, leading to development of petrochemical industries.
- Proximity of the market centre of Indo-Gangetic Plains.
The only problem in this region is the power supply as it is mainly dependent on thermal power. Now with the Kakrapara nuclear power plant coming up, the situation may improve. Ahmedabad and Surat are the major industrial centres in this region. Other than cotton textile, Surat is also developing as a major diamond-cutting centre and art silk fabric centre.
Apart from cotton textile, petrochemical and diamond-cutting industries the area has cement industries. The main centres of the latter are Dwarka and Porbandar. Vadodara is famous for its pharmaceuticals, glassware, fertilizers and chemical industries.
Hoogly or Kolkata-Howrah Region
This region is the most important industrial region after Mumbai. The Kolkata port on the river Hoogly, a tributary of Ganga offered an ideal harbour for the rich hinterland of Ganga-Brahmaputra plains.
The factors contributing to the concentration of industries in this region are:
- This region has the main jute-manufacturing region on either side of Hoogly river.
- The discovery of coal in Chotanagpur region was one of the most important reasons for establishment of various' industries in the region.
- Tea plantation in Assam and north part of West Bengal for which Kolkata was the main harbor.
- A good network of rivers, roads and railways for communication.
- Kolkata serves as the best port site for export and import of the raw materials and finished products.
- Cheap labour is available from the thickly populated neighbouring regions.
All these factors led to the development of a wide range of industries like jute, paper, cotton and silk textiles, engineering goods, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, automobiles, mopeds, matches and rubber goods.
Chotanagpur Plateau or Damodar Valley Region
This industrial region owes its development to the discovery of coal in Damodar Valley and iron ore in Bihar-Orissa belt.
The factors which led to its development as a hub of iron and steel industrial region are:
- Availability of coal from Damodar Valley.
- Availability of iron ore from Singhbhum and other mines.
- Cheap hydro and thermal power from large multi-purpose projects on river Damodar and river Mahanadi.
- Cheap labour supply from highly populated areas of Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal. Proximity to the Kolkata region market.
- Facility of import and export of the raw material and finished goods provided by Kolkata port.
- Excellent communication facilities by rail and roads to Kolkata region.
All these factors provided good sites for the establishment of iron and steel industries. The largest iron and steel plants at Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Rourkela and Bokaro are located in this region. The other important industries of the region are ferrous-metal industries, heavy engineering, machine and tools, paper, locomotives and heavy electricals. The important industrial centres are Jamshedpur, Chaibasa, Ranchi, Dhanbad, Sindri and Daltonganj.
This region is dominated by cotton textiles as raw material is readily available from cotton growing tracts.
The factors responsible for the development of this region are:
- Raw material such as cotton, which is easily available.
- Cheap hydroelectric power from Mettur, Sivasundaram, Sharavati and Pykara dams.
- High grade iron ore and limestone from Bhundiguda, manganese from Shimoga and other raw materials are easily available.
- Well connected links to nearby areas.
- Availability of cheap skilled labour, proximity to local market and a good humid climate.
The famous Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant was set up because of these favourable factors. Coimbatore and Madurai are famous for cotton and silk textiles. Other important areas of this industrial region are Sivakasi for firecrackers and Mettur in Mysore for handicraft and sandalwood articles.
This region has become an important industrial region after Independence. The region owes its development to the hydroelectricity from Bhakra-Nangal Project. The important industries of the region are sugar, paper, fertilizer, woollens, rubber goods, cotton textiles and chemicals. Mathura is famous for its oil refinery. The main industrial centres of the region are Ghaziabad, Sonepat, Panipat, Agra, Mathura and Saharanpur.
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