ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Medical Trivia 2

Updated on May 9, 2014

Sculpt and reshape

Plastic surgery, plastic denoting sculpting or reshaping, is that branch of medicine that is concerned with restoration of form and function and it has proved to be a boon to several hundred thousands of people over the year whether in the form of cosmetic or aesthetic surgery or for its much more widely spread uses in reconstructive surgery, burns treatments, microsurgery and many others. Plastic surgery became commonplace in western medicine during the First World War (1914-1918), when great numbers of people needed to be treated for injuries brought about by war and anesthetic techniques had been developed which helped to alleviate the pain otherwise connected with such operations; but plastic surgery dates much further back in time than the early years of the 20th century.

Ancient Egyptian Medical Treatise

Back to the ancient Egyptians.

The oldest known medical treatise that discusses surgery, the Edwin Smith papyrus, dates back to about 3000-2500 B.C. The document describes procedures for rhinoplasty, i.e. reconstructive surgery for the nose; and Hindu surgeons were regularly performing reconstructive surgeries as far back as 800 B.C., early treatises written in Sanskrit dating to between the 2nd and 6th centuries B.C., by Charaka (the Charaka Samitha) and Sushruta (the Sushruta Samitha). The ancient Romans also performed simple reconstructive surgery, such as simple repairs on damaged ears.

Shushruta monument at Haridwar, India.

Father of Medicine

Acharya Charaka, c. 300 B.C., was a principal contributor to the ancient Ayurdeva system of medicine that was developed in India. An early proponent of the concept that prevention is better than cure, his treatise, Charaka Samitha, contains important contributions on physiology, surgery, etiology and embryology. the term, Acharya, is one that is often attached to the names of highly learned folk.

Monument to the Father of Medicine at Haridwar, India.

Rhinoplasty in India

Rhinoplasty was particularly popular in India, where surgeons of the Ayurdeva school regularly performed such operations using alcohol-based anesthetics and steel surgical instruments; patients undergoing surgery were enabled to breathe by means of reeds inserted in the nostrils. Tissue for the reconstruction was taken from the cheeks or forehead. An account of a procedure carried out by an Indian surgeon watched by British surgeons was reported in the Gentleman’s Magazine, a British periodical, in an edition of 1794. Joseph Constantine Carpue (1764 – 1846), a British surgeon who spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods, performed the first major plastic surgery in the Western World.

What do you think is the best punishment for adultery?

See results

Adultery could leave you noseless.

The popularity of rhinoplasty in India may be related to the fact that the punishment for adultery in previous times was to slice off the adulterer’s nose; not as drastic as the stoning to death provided for by some other ancient codes of law; but pretty drastic nonetheless. So, insofar as one could afford the medical fees, the adulterer could cover up, at least to an extent, his criminality.


Submit a Comment

No comments yet.


This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)