Migration Case Studies: Mediterranean
U.K migration to Spain
Over the last twenty years pensioners increasingly migrate to the Mediterranean especially Spain, dubbed 'Sun Seekers'.
There are many reasons this has increased including:
- Spain joining the E.U in 1986, meaning that there is now an open border policy.
- Low cost airlines such as easy-jet make access not only cheaper but easier.
- Increased connectivity, the internet allows easy communication with friends and family through sites like Facebook and Skype.
But why migrate in the first place?
There are a variety of push and pull factors fuelling the migration to Spain.
Push Factors are reasons to leave a place, the negatives including the English weather, the idea the U.K has 'gone to the dogs' and the lifestyle.
Pull Factors are reasons to go to a place, the positives these include the better weather, cheaper living costs, better lifestyle with a 'holiday atmosphere' and expatiate communities already set up there.
Obviously migrating is not as simple as this Lee's Push - Pull migration Model gives a better idea of the process of migration.
What are the impacts on the source country? (U.K)
- Family breakup, loss of grandparents and potential childminders.
- Loss of highly experienced workforce.
- The grey pound is spend overseas.
- Care expenses are paid for by the host country.
- Relives pressure on housing, no need to build on greenfield sites.
- Emigration partly balanced immigration reducing net migration rates.
Impacts on host country (Spain)
- Migrant 'ghettos' are created with little social and cultural integration in San Fulgencio the migrants set up their own political party and won 21% of the vote and three local council seats. This can create social tensions with the 'native population'.
- House prices are driven up by 'sun seekers' to high for resident population.
- Health care costs
- Infrastructure such as water supply can become strained.
- Spending of the 'grey pound' can rejuvenate local economy.
- Jobs are created in construction, retail and services.
- Areas that previously had no value become valuable building sites.