ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Education and Science»
  • History & Archaeology

Military Orders and the Crusades: Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller

Updated on January 27, 2012

The Brotherhood of Knights


The Knights Templar and the Crusades by mpirrello is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

The Role of Military Orders in the Crusades


The Crusades were one of the darkest moments in world history as the clash of two great faiths and cultures met on the battlefield known as the ‘Kingdom of Heaven’. During the eleventh century, Western Catholicism struggled to reunite itself with its counterpart in the Byzantine Empire known as the Eastern Orthodox Church. The lingering effects of the “Great Schism” of 1054 were still very relevant in the politics of Medieval Europe and in the Eastern Empire. The split occurred for a number of reasons (mainly ecclesiastical), but ultimately, the Eastern Orthodox Church refused to acknowledge the claim of universal jurisdiction and supremacy of the Bishop of Rome (the Pope) and this led to each side excommunicating the other by the end of the year 1054. However, opportunity presented itself for possible reunification when the Papacy answered the call for aid from the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (Alexius I Commenus), whose territory was threatened by the encroaching Seljuk Turkish Empire. The massive response to Pope Urban II’s call to arms resulted in thousands of knights, peasants and nobles travelling from Europe to the Middle East to fight the ‘infidels’. This migratory movement would later be referred to as the First Crusade. The by-product of such a massive war was that it led to the creation of military orders led by religious monks who were expected to defend the Holy Land and Christian pilgrims to “the last drop of blood” , an idea that is still very much controversial and yet revolutionary at the same time.[1] The Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller were the two dominant religious military orders established after the First Crusade that allowed the Latin Kingdoms to continue to exist for nearly two centuries through their superior fighting skill, their commitment to the cause, and the substantial power they accumulated in the process.


Urban II at the Council of Clermont
Urban II at the Council of Clermont

Templar Training

Upon the capture of Jerusalem, and other cities previously held by the Seljuk Turks, the Crusaders realized that they would need a steady supply of troops to preserve their conquered territories because a number of the original knights returned home to Europe. [2],[3] The newly formed Latin Kingdoms were vulnerable and subject to constant attack and thus the call for a military force that would permanently abide in the Holy Land was legitimized. The first and most powerful military order to be founded was the Knights Templars. In 1118, French knight Hugh de Payens and eight other companions swore an oath to defend Christendom against its enemies and in doing so created the Poor Knights of Christ and Temple of Solomon, later known as the Templar Knights or just the Templars.[4] This order can best be described as a small, but elite fighting force of the Crusader army who were comprised of “warrior monks”.[5]From the age of seven they were trained in the art of war and military combat, becoming adept at maneuvering with heavy armor, using a variety of weapons, and horse riding.[6],[7] Although they were excellent fighters, they often suffered heavy casualties because of their most common form of attack, the eschielle, also known as the squadron charge. This was essentially a suicide charge in an attempt to break through enemy lines to create a hole for the rest of the army to follow through and scatter them. While their name grew recognition because of this brave and daring tactic, there was, however, another order that rivaled the Templars for fame and reputation, the Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, or simply the Knights Hospitaller.

The Origin of the Knights Hospitaller

The Knights Hospitaller was initially a monastic charitable organization commissioned by Pope Gregory the Great that had two primary goals: establish hospitals and care for the sick Christian pilgrims who came to Jerusalem. However, after the fall of Jerusalem in the eleventh century to the Seljuk Turks, the hospital was destroyed and it was reported that over 3,000 Christians were massacred during the ravaging of the city.[8] After the First Crusade commenced, Jerusalem was retaken and the hospital was rebuilt by Benedictine monks. It was subsequently reorganized by the Blessed Gerard who helped set the foundation for what it was to become in the future.[9] Similar to the Templars, members of the order understood that the road to the Holy Land was dangerous outside small territories of the Latin Kingdoms and so they made it their fourth vow to protect the pilgrims from the ‘infidels’.[10] Somewhere between 1119 and 1126, the Hospitallers began to arm themselves at Antioch and the militaristic aspect of the order came into inception.[11] The Hospitallers prepared their inexperienced and novice members for combat with training that lasted a year and included lessons on horseback riding, fencing and the standard tactical maneuvers of the time period. Members of the order were commonly former soldiers themselves who had seen combat and therefore needed no formal teaching.[12] With regard to the warhorse, the Hospitallers went so far as to make a legal distinction between what they referred to as a “Turkish Saddle”, (a lightweight, noncombatant riding saddle commonly used by the Seljuk Turks) and a war-saddle.[13] Just like the Templars, the Hospitallers could use weapons ranging from spears, to crossbows, to swords and were able to confidently attack on horseback, as demonstrated in the Battle of Arsuf in 1191.[14] The Templars and the Hospitallers were expertly trained in every aspect of warfare and combat, but the most well-known characteristic of the two orders was their tenacity in battle and commitment to the cause.




Baghras Castle, Eastern Turkey
Baghras Castle, Eastern Turkey

Reputation of the Knights Templar and Hospitaller

During the time of Saladin, on the rare chance that members of either order were captured, they were immediately executed because Saladin was all too familiar with their firm resolve on the battlefield and he feared them greatly.[16],[17] In the aftermath of the Battle of Hattin in July of 1187, Saladin was purported to have said, “I will purify the land of these two impure orders” and he even paid his soldiers fifty gold pieces for every captured Templar or Hospitaller they brought him so he could execute them later.[18][19] He put to death “every Templar and Hospitaller he could get his hands on”.[20] Saladin’s own secretary 'Im,d al-DÓn demonstrated the hatred for the orders when he proclaimed, “What evils he cures in harming a Templar!” and he went on to lament about how the Hospitaller fortress of Kaukab and the Templar fortress of Baghras were unreachable and unobtainable because the elevation of the two strategic locations made them virtually invincible. Of the Hospitaller fortress of Marquab, a hundred years after Saladin unsuccessfully besieged it, it finally fell in 1185 to Sultan Kalavun who said, “'In this memorable day were revenged the evils caused by the house of the Hospitallers, and the brightness of day replaced the shadows”.[21] Further emphasizing the importance of the knights and their determination, Guiot de Provins, a French poet from the thirteenth century, wrote: “The Templars are most doughty men . . . It is the Order of Knighthood. They are in great honour[sic] in Syria; the Turks fear them greatly, they are like a castle or wall against them; they will never flee in battle”.[22] This analysis details the perception of elite military orders, such as the Templars and the Hospitallers, by the other Crusaders and also the Turks. Yet, it simultaneously depicts this romanticized image of how they led by example and held true to their oaths of no retreat and no surrender. After the Battle of Montgisard, Bernard of Clairvaux, (later known as St. Bernard), a strong advocate of both military orders, especially the Templars, would later write that, “Victory is not dependent on a big army… [The members of the orders are] gentler than lambs, yet fiercer than lions. I do not know if it would be more appropriate to refer to them as monks or as soldiers, unless perhaps it would be better to recognize them as being both. Indeed they lack neither monastic meekness nor military might.”[23]Bernard’s description epitomizes the issue of identity for these passionate religious monks who are seemingly “gentler than lambs”, but at the same time can be “fiercer than lions” when it came to the defense of the Holy Land. This account is just one of the many that illustrates the growing power of the Hospitallers and Templars and puts them in the ‘medieval media limelight’ with all this publicity and power that came with it.


Crac Des Chevaliers, Syria
Crac Des Chevaliers, Syria | Source
Louis VII
Louis VII

Friends in High Places

European monarchs, who have had a hard time following the Pope’s commands, started to bestow gifts, grant lands, and titles of nobility to these impressive warrior monks. In fact, it was reported by the chaplains of King Louis VII, that while marching with the Templars, he admired them so much that during a council of war he “ordered of all of his soldiers and officers to bind themselves in confraternity to the Templars and [said they] should march under their orders.”[24] This account demonstrates the growing power given to the orders. To put it in perspective, European kings who were normally very protective of their own lands and people during this time period, began handing over command of their entire armies and to the fate of a small group of militaristic monks! Sounds ridiculous indeed, however, their reputation preceded them wherever they went, as established at the Battle of Montgisard, where both orders played a vital role in the victory over Saladin and their ability to work together was demonstrated.

Baldwin IV, 'The Leopard King'
Baldwin IV, 'The Leopard King'

Two Orders; Two Stories

Source

An Increasing Influence

The respect for Templars and Hospitallers grew to the point where the mere sight or presence of them on the battlefield lifted the morale and confidence of the Crusaders. The Templars, with their white tunics and red crosses, and the Hospitallers, with their (initially) black surcoats and white crosses, were easily recognizable and their fierceness and determination separated them from all others. These militaristic monks were expected "to defend the Holy Sepulcher to the last drop of blood and fight the unfaithful wherever one finds them”.[15] Martyrdom became a word synonymous with both orders. This belief made them ferocious fighters because death on the battlefield essentially meant a straight ticket to heaven. With this in mind, the mentality of a member of either order was, “what is the point of surrendering when the inevitable consequences are either being held for ransom or sold into a life of slavery?”


Most Prominent Military Order

Which military order of the Crusades would you join?

See results
Pope Innocent II
Pope Innocent II

The Battle of Montgisard

The Battle of Montgisard should have been an easy victory, for Saladin because the Crusaders were easily outnumbered by his forces, which historians estimate to be around 27,000, but they were disorganized due to pillaging and plundering that was taking place on their route to Jerusalem.[25] About eighty Templar Knights reunited with the main Crusader army, along with a small contingent of Hospitallers, after being cut off and together they moved up the coastline where they ambushed Saladin and caused chaos amongst his army and even his elite personal bodyguards, the Mamelukes. A chronicler of the battle, Ralph of Diss, wrote describing the subsequent onslaught, “Spurring all together, as one man, they [the Templars] made a charge, turning neither to the left nor to the right. Recognizing the battalion in which Saladin commanded many knights, they manfully approached it, immediately penetrated it, incessantly knocked down, scattered, struck and crushed. Saladin was smitten with admiration, seeing his men dispersed everywhere, everywhere turned in flight, everywhere given to the mouth of the sword.”[26] While the Knights Templar received most of the credit for the victory, the often unreported aftermath of the battle was that an estimated 750 wounded Crusader soldiers were taken to a nearby hospital created by the Hospitallers themselves years earlier. Although, the hospital was already caring for 900 sick patients, they still accepted the wounded soldiers without complaint and saw to it that they were treated by physicians, surgeons, and blood-letters.[27] With their skills on the battlefield proven, the two orders turned their attention back towards Europe where they were given exclusive privileges by the most powerful political force in Europe, the Holy See.


The Templars and Hospitallers’ reputation in the Middle East was equally impressive as it was back home in Europe. The Templars successes in the Holy Land resulted in them being rewarded with land grants and other generous donations from nobles across Europe. Pope Innocent II officially ordained them as being exempt from taxes, tithes and, furthermore, made them answerable only to him through the Omne Datum Optimum.[28] This once small order of nine knights had its membership swell to over ten thousand at the height of its power and it quickly became a dominant religious and yet militaristic bureaucracy that had administrative functions to deal with.[29] However, the Templars were not the only order to receive this type of pampering from Europe’s most influential powers, the Knights Hospitaller accrued an equal, if not greater amount of power as a result of their services in the Holy Land.


Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland is believed to contain many Templar secrets in its design and structure.
Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland is believed to contain many Templar secrets in its design and structure.
'Temple Manor' in Strood, England was given to the Order in 1159 by Henry II.
'Temple Manor' in Strood, England was given to the Order in 1159 by Henry II.

And yet, this practice directly contradicted the Church’s law against charging interest, so to circumvent the loophole, the Templars called it “rent”, whilst the Hospitallers, who were less involved in this type of activity managed to subtly get away with it.[38],[39] The increased wealth of the orders amplified their political power and the endorsement of the Pope emphasized this even more and made them the ‘Untouchables’ of their time. Nevertheless, this left a growing divide between European monarchies and noblemen and the religious orders who answered only to the Pope himself. The enemies of the Templars and Hospitallers were jealous of what they had achieved and envied the exclusive powers granted to them. Moreover, the Templars role in banking was enough to earn them a sworn enemy in King Philip IV of France. The French monarchy was in debt due to wars and excessive spending and Philip found a willing creditor in the Templars. However, after realizing that paying them back with interest would cost a fortune, Philip devised a plan with Pope Clement V to eliminate them.[40] It was this seed of dissent and disunity between the varying factions that would eventually lead to the Templars ‘fall from grace’ and, to an extent, the Hospitallers as well.

The Templars were excellent bankers who developed a system of credit that Christian pilgrims could make use of when they traveled between the Holy Land and Europe.
The Templars were excellent bankers who developed a system of credit that Christian pilgrims could make use of when they traveled between the Holy Land and Europe.

The Orders Find Wealth

The Knights Hospitallers built castles and fortified port cities to ensure that their presence would have a lasting effect in the Holy Land and also to symbolize their growing power to the Latin Kingdoms and to Europe itself.[30] Similar to the Templars, the Pope in turn created a Papal Bull that exempted them from all tithes because of their accomplishments in fighting off the ‘infidels’ in the Holy Land.[31]In 1136, the Hospitallers were given the town of Bethgibelin, which was located on the southern border of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and was prone to constant attack.[32] Their power continued to grow as they assisted the Crusading armies through chaplains, knights, and serving brethren. Between the years 1142 and 1144, the Hospitallers acquired five prominent castles in the Kingdom of Tripoli, some of which are still standing today and have ironically become a base of operations for radical Islamic militia forces to strike against their Jewish neighbors in Israel.[33] The primary source of income for both the Hospitallers and the Templars came from the castles and estates built on lands donated to them by Europe’s top monarchs and nobles. The majority of members in both orders were noncombatants, who instead of fighting on the frontlines, helped their brethren in an economical way.[34] They raised funds to support the campaign financially and tactfully used the land grants mentioned above to establish territories or miniature kingdoms carved out all over Europe itself.[35] The Templars owned around nine thousand manors in the year 1244 and the Knights Hospitallers possessed more than twice that number.[36] The benefit of having these steady sources of income proved to be invaluable when outfitting their brethren serving in the Holy Lands. Banking soon became a concept used by both the Hospitallers and the Templars and in engaging in this kind of financial activity, they discovered the value of loaning out money and in doing so invented the concept of usury. This essentially meant charging interests on the loans they gave out to kings, nobles, and merchants.[37]

However, this practice directly contradicted the Church’s law against charging interest, so to circumvent the loophole, the Templars called it “rent”, whilst the Hospitallers, who were less involved in this type of activity managed to subtly get away with it.[38],[39] The increased wealth of the orders amplified their political power and the endorsement of the Pope emphasized this even more and made them the ‘untouchables’ of their time. Nevertheless, this left a growing divide between European monarchies and noblemen and the religious orders who answered only to the Pope himself. The enemies of Templars and the Hospitallers were jealous of what they had achieved and envied the exclusive powers granted to them. Moreover, the Templars role in banking was enough to earn them a sworn enemy in King Philip IV of France. The French monarchy was in debt due to wars and excessive spending and Philip found a willing creditor in the Templars. However, after realizing that paying them back with interest would cost a fortune, Philip devised a plan with Pope Clement V to eliminate them.[40] It was this seed of dissent and disunity between the varying factions that would eventually lead to the Templars ‘fall from grace’ and, to an extent, the Hospitallers as well.


Crusading routes taken
Crusading routes taken

In retrospect, from the European point of view, the Crusades were only as successful as the amount of enthusiasm, preparation and commitment that were put into them by Europe as a whole. The decision to let the fate of the Holy Land lie with the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller can be looked at in two ways. On one hand, they helped keep safe the Latin Kingdoms from the time they were founded in 1099 to when the last territory, the city of Acre, was captured in 1291. On the other hand they may have lost their true purpose of defending Christian pilgrims when they were granted all the powers that came with their successes. Whether the glass is half empty or half full, these combined monastic and militaristic orders were something that the world had never seen before, they were simply revolutionary. Through all the controversy surrounding them they managed to succeed and through their military accomplishments, their devout commitment to the cause, and their ascension to power, they managed an empire essentially and used their vast amount of resources to ensure that the Crusader Kingdoms continued to exist and because they were put high up on a pedestal, they inevitably failed. Nonetheless, the legacy of the “warrior monks"persists to this day and the members of these orders survived well after their own time, so maybe Bernard of Clairvaux was right and we should not judge a certain aspect of these dynamic individuals, but rather take them for what they were, “gentler than lambs, yet fiercer than lions”.

mpirrello © 2012

Bibliography


Addison, Charles G., and David Hatcher Childress. The History of the Knights Templars. Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited, 1997. Print.


Arsuf, By 1112. "Crusades (Christianity) :: The Crusader States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 14 Oct. 2010. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/144695/Crusades/25604/The-Crusader-states?anchor=ref954472>.


Dafoe, By Stephen. "Templarhistory.com » Blog Archive » The Battle of Montgisard." Templarhistory.com. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://blog.templarhistory.com/2010/06/the-battle-of-montgisard/>.


Decoding the Past: The Templar Code Part 1. Dir. The History Channel. Google Videos. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1176643089643885375#>.


Dutch, Steve. "The Crusades." University of Wisconsin - Green Bay. June-July 2010. Web. 11 Oct. 2010. <http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/westtech/xcrusade.htm>.


Hickman, By Kennedy. "The Battle of Arsuf." Military History - Warfare through the Ages - Battles and Conflicts - Weapons of War - Military Leaders in History. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars10011200/p/The-Crusades-Battle-Of-Arsuf.htm>.


"History of the Knights Hospitaller." Knights Hospitaller. Web. 06 Nov. 2010. <http://www.knightshospitaller.net/history.html>.


"History of the Knights of St. John." Knights of Malta. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://www.knightsofmalta.com/history/history.html>.


"Knights Hospitaller." Middle Ages. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/knights-hospitaller.htm>.


"Knights Hospitaller." Middle Ages. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/knights-hospitaller.htm>.


Knights Hospitallers of the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, Knights of Malta - The Ecumenical Order. "Our History." The Knights Hospitallers of the Sovereign Order of Saint John, Knights of Malta. Sept. 2009. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://www.theknightshospitallers.org/history.php>.


"Knights Templar Banking." Middle Ages. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/knights-templar-banking.htm>.


Kjeilen, By Tore. "Christian Crusader States - LookLex Encyclopaedia." LookLex [Travel Guides / Encyclopaedia / Language Course]. Web. 13 Oct. 2010. <http://i-cias.com/e.o/crusades_01.htm>.


This website provided an overview of the complex structure of the Christian Crusader States and also connected the governing style of the rulers with the newly formed military orders of the Crusades.



"KNIGHTS TEMPLAR HISTORY,Recruitment to the Order of the Knights Templar." A-LONDON-TOURIST-GUIDE,Tourist Attractions in London. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http://www.a-london-tourist-guide.com/knights-templar-history-recruitment.html>.


Holt, P. M. The Crusader States and Their Neighbours. Harlow: Longman, 2004. Print.


This book is the closest one I have found so far that deals with my topic regarding the many kingdoms and Crusader States that surrvived for many years long after the First Crusade. In the text, relationships between the people of the four main Crusader States are examined and how Christians and their Muslim neighbors treated each other.


Irish History. "The Rise and Fall of the Knights Templar in Ireland." Irish History Podcast. 10 Aug. 2011. Web. 27 Jan. 2012.< http://irishhistorypodcast.ie/2011/08/10/the-rise-and-fall-of-the-knights-templar-in-ireland/>.

Martin, Edward James. The Trial of the Templars. New York: AMS, 1978. 25. Print.


McKay, John P., Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Haru Crowston. Clare, and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks. "Chapter 9: State and Church in the High Midle Ages, 1000-1300." A History of Western Society. Vol. A. New York, Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. 280-93. Print.


Nell, Grant Sebastian. "Knights Templar: Arms and Equipment of the Knights of the Temple." Suite101.com: Online Magazine and Writers' Network. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.suite101.com/content/knights-templar-a56985>.


Nicholson, Helen. ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Web. 06 Nov. 2010. <http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/knights.html>.


Nicolle, David, and Christa Hook. Knight Hospitaller. Botley, Oxford: Osprey, 2001. 30-40. Print.


Nicolle, David, and Christa Hook. Knight Hospitaller. Botley, Oxford: Osprey, 2001. 56-58. Print.


"Omne Datum Optimum - Papal Bull of Privileges to the Knights Templar (with Translation)." Knights Templar History - Medieval Crusades, Spirituality and Secrets. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://www.knightstemplarvault.com/static.php?page=omnedatumoptimum>.


"ORB -- St. Bernard of Clairvaux." ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/bernard.html>.


"The Order of Saint John in the Time of the Crusades." Chivalric Orders. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.chivalricorders.org/orders/smom/crusades.htm>.


Parker, Thomas William. The Knights Templars in England. Tucson: University of Arizona, 1963. Print.


Phillips, Jonathan. The First Crusade: Origins and Impact. Manchester, UK: Manchester UP, 1997. Print.


A collection of nine essays that describe the impact of the First Crusade specifically on the lives of the eastern Mediterranean people. This book provided a wide range of thoughts and explanations from scholars and reexamined the First Crusade and its impact.


Riley-Smith, Jonathan Simon Christopher. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009. Print.


Again, this is just another source that explains the origin and, more importantly, the notion of the Crusades. The first Crusade is described in depth as well as Pope Urban II's speech.


Runciman, Steven. The First Crusade. Vol. I. Cambridge [England: Cambridge UP, 2005. Print.


This novel provided information as to the atmosphere after Jersualem was surrendered to the Moslems in 638 A.D. and furthermore, demonstrated the feeling of resentment that was felt by many Christians after the city was handed over.


"Templar (religious Military Order) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/586765/Templars>.


Wheeler, Bonnie. "Knights of Templar." Southern Methodist University. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. <http://faculty.smu.edu/bwheeler/Ency/templar.html>.




[1] "The Order of Saint John in the Time of the Crusades." Chivalric Orders. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.chivalricorders.org/orders/smom/crusades.htm>.

[2] McKay, John P., Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Haru Crowston. Clare, and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks. "Chapter 9: State and Church in the High Midle Ages, 1000-1300." A History of Western Society. Vol. A. New York, Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. 280-93. Print.

[3] Decoding the Past: The Templar Code Part 1. Dir. The History Channel. Google Videos. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1176643089643885375#>.

[4]"Templar (religious Military Order) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/586765/Templars>.

[5] Wheeler, Bonnie. "Knights of Templar." Southern Methodist University. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. <http://faculty.smu.edu/bwheeler/Ency/templar.html>.

[6] "Knights Templar History, Recruitment to the Order of the Knights Templar." A-LONDON-TOURIST-GUIDE,Tourist Attractions in London. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http://www.a-london-tourist-guide.com/knights-templar-history-recruitment.html>.

[7] Nell, Grant Sebastian. "Knights Templar: Arms and Equipment of the Knights of the Temple." Suite101.com: Online Magazine and Writers' Network. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.suite101.com/content/knights-templar-a56985>.

[8] "Knights Hospitaller." Middle Ages. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/knights-hospitaller.htm>.

[9] "The Order of Saint John in the Time of the Crusades." Chivalric Orders. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.chivalricorders.org/orders/smom/crusades.htm>.

[10] "Knights Hospitaller." Middle Ages. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/knights-hospitaller.htm>.

[11] W.K.R. Bedford, The Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem: Being a History of the English Hospitallers of St. John, Their Rise and Progress (London: AMS, 1978) p. 8

[12] Nicolle, David, and Christa Hook. Knight Hospitaller. Botley, Oxford: Osprey, 2001. 30-40. Print.

[13] Ibid

[14] Hickman, By Kennedy. "The Battle of Arsuf." Military History - Warfare through the Ages - Battles and Conflicts - Weapons of War - Military Leaders in History. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars10011200/p/The-Crusades-Battle-Of-Arsuf.htm>.

[15] "The Order of Saint John in the Time of the Crusades." Chivalric Orders. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.chivalricorders.org/orders/smom/crusades.htm>.

[16] Nicholson, Helen. ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Web. 06 Nov. 2010. <http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/knights.html>.

[17] "History of the Knights Hospitaller." Knights Hospitaller. Web. 06 Nov. 2010. <http://www.knightshospitaller.net/history.html>.

[18] Ibid

[19] Nicholson, Helen. ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Web. 06 Nov. 2010. <http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/knights.html>.

[20] Ibid

[21] Ibid

[22] Nell, Grant Sebastian. "Knights Templar: Arms and Equipment of the Knights of the Temple." Suite101.com: Online Magazine and Writers' Network. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.suite101.com/content/knights-templar-a56985>.

[23] Nicholson, Helen. ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Web. 06 Nov. 2010. <http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/knights.html>.

[24] Addison, Charles G., and David Hatcher Childress. The History of the Knights Templars. Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited, 1997. Print.

[25] Decoding the Past: The Templar Code Part 1. Dir. The History Channel. Google Videos. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1176643089643885375#>.

[26] Dafoe, By Stephen. "Templarhistory.com » Blog Archive » The Battle of Montgisard." Templarhistory.com. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://blog.templarhistory.com/2010/06/the-battle-of-montgisard/>.

[27] Nicolle, David, and Christa Hook. Knight Hospitaller. Botley, Oxford: Osprey, 2001. 56-58. Print.

[28] "Omne Datum Optimum - Papal Bull of Privileges to the Knights Templar (with Translation)." Knights Templar History - Medieval Crusades, Spirituality and Secrets. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://www.knightstemplarvault.com/static.php?page=omnedatumoptimum>.

[29] Decoding the Past: The Templar Code Part 1. Dir. The History Channel. Google Videos. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1176643089643885375#>.

[30] Knights Hospitallers of the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, Knights of Malta - The Ecumenical Order. "Our History." The Knights Hospitallers of the Sovereign Order of Saint John, Knights of Malta. Sept. 2009. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://www.theknightshospitallers.org/history.php>.

[31] "The Order of Saint John in the Time of the Crusades." Chivalric Orders. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.chivalricorders.org/orders/smom/crusades.htm>.

[32] "The Order of Saint John in the Time of the Crusades." Chivalric Orders. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.chivalricorders.org/orders/smom/crusades.htm>.

[33] Ibid

[34] Decoding the Past: The Templar Code Part 1. Dir. The History Channel. Google Videos. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1176643089643885375#>.

[35] "Knights Hospitaller." Middle Ages. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/knights-hospitaller.htm>.

[36] Martin, Edward James. The Trial of the Templars. New York: AMS, 1978. 25. Print.

[37] "Knights Templar Banking." Middle Ages. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/knights-templar-banking.htm>.

[38] Decoding the Past: The Templar Code Part 1. Dir. The History Channel. Google Videos. Web. 05 Nov. 2010. <http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1176643089643885375#>.

[39] "Knights Templar Banking." Middle Ages. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/knights-templar-banking.htm>.

[40] Irish History. "The Rise and Fall of the Knights Templar in Ireland." Irish History Podcast. 10 Aug. 2011. Web. 27 Jan. 2012.< http://irishhistorypodcast.ie/2011/08/10/the-rise-and-fall-of-the-knights-templar-in-ireland/>.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      it's not leopard 3 years ago

      it's Baldwin IV the LEPER king, not LEOPARD king...

    • profile image

      anynonomus 5 years ago

      This was good but you reapeted some info.

    • phdast7 profile image

      Theresa Ast 5 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia

      Hi- Good Hub with excellent information. I love that you cite sources and do foot notes. You and I are one of the handful of Hubbers that do that.

      But, and I am trying to be helpful here, to build readership you need to do the following. (1)Break your long paragraphs into 2 or 3 paragraphs each - most people simply will not even try to read long chunks of text. They see them and move on. (2) Sprinkle pictures and/or maps (4 or 6 or 8) throughout your Hubs. (3) Every few paragrapgs, put in a sub-title in bold to tell your reader where the essay is heading.

      Please go check out some of my Hubs for examples of what I am talking about. I am not asking you to rate them, just go take a look and see what you think. Try the WW II history ones for starters. Good luck.

      Oh, yes, same advice applies to your other Hub. Think of your readers. If they wanted to read a whole page of plain text, they would go get a book, wouldn't they?