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Mysteries of Ancient History

Updated on January 27, 2013

Ancient Mysteries: Great Historical Mystery Abounds


The World is full of incredible ancient mysteries that history books just won't teach you, and it's rather sad to me how few people are aware of some of the incredible discoveries and unknown history of this world. Great mysteries abound, and human history is far different than what's being taught by history books, but for reasons of politics, academics, and arrogance most people don't have an inkling of some of the more amazing implications that these discoveries have. They affect everything from history to philosophy to even the theory of human evolution (the last one is a HUGE reason many of these discoveries are swept under the rug, and not for "religious reasons," but more on that later). In fact, sometimes the best information can be found from history movies, like the kind shown on the History Channel or other similar stations.

Why do "little details" of history matter? Because they're not little details, and if there was an extremely advanced civilization 5,000 years before our history says modern humans even appeared to begin settling down (and there is plenty of evidence that this was in fact the case), then the questions that brings up would challenge everything. I am a firm believer that the search for truth is extremely important, and if that means that new discoveries force you to re-write the history books and reconsider your views on the world, then I'm all for it.

I couldn't even begin to list all the unexplained mysteries of the world on one hub, but hopefully this first one will at least get your minds going, and provide one or two topics to look up that maybe you didn't know before.

Some Pictures of the World's Mysteries

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Stonehenge: An amazing monument, one of the great mysteries of the ancient world.The Pyramids of EgyptYonaguni - Underwater Japanese Pyramids
Stonehenge: An amazing monument, one of the great mysteries of the ancient world.
Stonehenge: An amazing monument, one of the great mysteries of the ancient world.
The Pyramids of Egypt
The Pyramids of Egypt
Yonaguni - Underwater Japanese Pyramids
Yonaguni - Underwater Japanese Pyramids

Did the Irish "Discover" America?


In a word, yes, mostly likely the Irish were actually the first Europeans to reach the "New World." This is one of the greatest unknown history stories of the world, and it's amazing that this hasn't received more attention.

Out of the Europeans, the Irish were here first, and they beat the Vikings by over 300 years. Bet 99% of you never heard that one. Some historians argue that there isn't overwhelming evidence, but the Irish didn't arrive and set up huge colonies: small groups arrived as missionaries and left a small, but very convincing piece of evidence that they arrived in what is today known as the United States as far back as AD 700-900.

The story of "The Voyage of Saint Brendan the Abbot" was long dismissed by academics as a pure fable, with the reasoning from academe of "Europeans were too primitive." Way to keep an open mind to facts, eh?

The story tells what has since been confirmed as likely volcanic eruptions that would be similar to those in Iceland, an encounter with a whale, and icebergs. As we now know that the Polynesian culture could make their way across the Pacific in glorified canoes, the thought of making it across the Atlantic in Curraghs doesn't seem unreasonable, especially since Timothy Severin, a British Explorer, made it across the ocean in the 1970s in a similar boat, even though he obviously wouldn't have had the experience of the early Irish monks.

Then came the real, non-circumstantial evidence:

A petroglyph was discovered in West Virginia with an inscription cut into the cliff. This has been recorded, studied, and indentified. Studied many times over, there seem to be two interpretations:

  1. The naysayers who say the Irish didn't make it because (basically) they say so ((God forbid a monk should ever do anything but chant)), and so say that it's coincidence, or that the petroglyphs can't be interpreted, even when the language has been identified.
  2. The archaeologists who have studied the petroglyphs have identified the language as an old Irish language called Ogam. The message can be deciphered using this language, commonly used by Celtic Christian monks, and giving an inscription matching the Christian faith they would have professed.

These petroglyphs are estimated to be made between AD 500 to AD 800. This was the first physical evidence linking Irish monks to North America before the Vikings, although the Norse's own texts, once thought only legend, reported the Irish having been to the islands of Iceland and Greenland before the Vikings ever arrived.

The inscriptions match similar ones actually found in Ireland and translate to:

"At the time of sunrise, a ray grazes the notch on the left side on Christmas Day, a Feast-day of the Church, the first seven of the [Christian] year, the season of the blessed advent of the Savior, Lord Christ. Behold, He is born of Mary, a woman."

That's one hell of a coincidence that "random drawings" write that message out in old Irish. Greek letters often representing Christ in the Irish Celtic Christian religion were also used, and a second petroglyph in West Virginia was found using the same old Irish language with a similar message.

So out of the Europeans, the Irish made it here first. History should reflect that maybe the world wasn't as big as many historians tend to think it was back then. I think too many academics look down their nose at our "primitive" ancestors, and recognizing discoveries like this definitely make you re-think the legends and history as it is taught.

Politics, religion, and arrogance shouldn't block the progress of truth and facts. The Irish were the first Europeans here - who knows what new discoveries could be made by teaching those facts instead of a more politically correct fiction?

Ancient Mystery: The Stone Heads of Easter Island

The Mysterious Stone Heads of Easter Island


These amazing stone heads bring up a wide range of questions: who, why, how. Many different modern attempts have been made to figure out how such huge stones were made and carved. Where did the stones come from? How did they move them? What do they represent?

These questions revolving around how the Rapanui people could transport these stones, weighing tons, across the island remains one of the great ancient mysteries, especially since archaeologists believe these amazing structures were set up in "pre-history." How were all these moved by only stone, wood, rope, and human power?

There are stories passed down from oral traditions, but no one is sure if the stories are complete legend, or at least based in fact. Most focus on the idea of "mana," or divine power possessed by a very few who could command the moai (stone heads) to walk to their places. Conspiracy and "hidden history" theorists point to these stories as evidence of a once greatly technologically advanced civilization or extra terrestrial life.

Others argue that maybe the problem is the assumption that there never has been an advanced civilization in "pre-history." Maybe the moving of the moai seems an impossible task with only stone, wood, and rope because maybe there was something else at work, or technology we're not familiar with.

Whatever the explanations, right now only theories remain, making the moai stone heads of Easter Island one of the great mysteries of the ancient world.

Great Mysteries of the Pyramids

Ancient Mystery: The Disappearing Maya


Great mystery: the Maya. The decline of the Mayan civilization remains a great mystery, as the Maya were well past their height by the time the Spanish arrived. Unfortunately, entire libraries of the Mayan language and knowledge were put to the torch by the Spanish, causing us to lose who knows how much collected wisdom forever. With all the amazing mysteries that archaeologists are discovering, one wonders how much incredible history was lost.

Not only that, but the Maya were advanced in ways that modern science has yet to match. Their calendar is the most accurate that has ever been invented, and the level of astronomical knowledge the Maya had (that we knew of) was on a level that we've needed space telescopes to match. The sheer elaborate level of their language indicates a really high level of development. Read: not primitive. In some ways, the Maya were more intelligent than we are now.

What stuns and confuses modern students of history is that aside from these already brilliant accomplishments, the Mayan had one of the densest populations in history. Popularity density was 5-700 people per square mile in "rural" areas and 1,000-2,600 people per square mile near the center of the Mayan Empire. Or that means the high end was as dense as Los Angeles in the year AD 2000.

With all our technology and knowledge, we have no concept of how to efficiently use the jungle landscape at all. If you asked modern city planners and scientists to use the jungle and known technology from that period to support a civilization in the jungle half that size, the response would be that it is impossible.

How's that for an amazing history mystery?

Pyramids: Not Just an Egyptian Thing


Ah, the mysteries of the pyramids. The pyramids remain incredible monuments to early man's ability to create lasting impressions on this earth. While the pyramids of Egypt are certainly the largest and most famous, they're not the only pyramids or pyramid like structures in the world. One of the surprising things is the sheer number of pyramid-like buildings across the world in a wide variety of places that, in theory (keywords here), were never connected.

Pyramids or similar structures are said to exist in Egypt, Mexico, Sudan, Peru, Japan, Guatemala, Bolivia, Laos, Cambodia, Tahiti, Indonesia, China, The Canary Islands, and (with some controversy as these nations there are arguments over 'pyramid' and what does count and doesn't) possibly England, Ireland, Italy, Samoa, Brazil, Nubia, and the extremely controversial Bosnia.

While the Egyptian pyramids still contain many mysteries, the fact there are so many pyramids in so many places fascinates me. It seems an amazing coincidence that all these places have pyramids without being at all related. Especially when the underwater pyramids around Japan (Google "Yonaguni"), which are sunken, are estimated as having been occupied around 8,000-10,000 BC.

That's right, folks. Pyramids giving evidence of an advanced culture up to 5,000 years before our current history books say the earliest hunters/gatherers settled down, and since they're underwater, I'm guessing there was one heck of a cataclysm.

Early Mesopotamia and Babylon had pyramids, as well, and the sheer fact that there is such a similarity in structures that was used by the most advanced civilizations in North America, South America, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific seem to tell me that there's more that meets the eye here.

Atlantis? Thousands of years of advanced civilizations destroyed and forgotten? Maybe all of the above, but think about the chances of all those pyramids all across the world being individual instances of coincidence. Doesn't seem really likely, does it?

Atlantis: Myth? Reality? Somewhere in Between?


Atlantis brings up a lot of passionate arguments on both sides. Is the lost city/continent real, or was it just meant as a metaphor for early Greek parables? The first mention of Atlantis comes from Plato's dialogue, which describes Atlantis as being somewhere "Outside the Pillars of Hercules" over 9,000 years before the time of Plato, who also said the story came from Egypt (makes you really wish the Library of Alexandria didn't burn to the ground).

My take for what it's worth, is that the literal "continent of Atlantis" was a myth, a metaphor, but that there was definitely a very advanced seafaring civilization that we know very little to nothing about from "prehistory." If you want to call this "Atlantis," than so be it. Is this civilization the same Plato is talking about? I would guess not, but a lot of circumstances from the wide spread of pyramids, to common legends and mythology of multiple cultures, to the many "inexplicable" feats of early cultures doing the "impossible" with primitive technology, all point to there having been a much bigger and advanced civilization at some point.

My bet would be on the Pacific, connecting Asia to South America and everything in between, but that's just speculation. If there is a "real" Atlantis, I would bet on there.

What Was the Philadelphia Experiment?

Historical Mysteries: Bits & Pieces to Chew On


The world has tons of incredible mysteries. Some seem to escape detection because people don't realize the implications. Others just slip through the cracks because there really are so many mysteries in the world. So this section will just give some small blurbs on some amazing mysteries that I haven't covered with the other sections.

  1. Cocoa discovered in the tombs of several Pharaohs. This might not seem much until you consider this: there's one major place in the world where cocoa comes from, and that's South America. This means at 2000 BC, there had to be trade between Egypt and the New World, or at least an intermediary (Mali?) who traded with both.
  2. The Dead refuse to rest in Chase Vault. This one drives cynics nuts. In the infamous Chase vault the bodies of the family were placed there over a seven year period. Problem is, noises and moans kept echoing out of the sealed crypt, and every time the crypt was open for a new coffin, lead coffins were trashed as if flung across the room, and the few brave enough to try and stay at night heard loud moans in the crypt with them and fled in terror. Seems like there's definitely an afterlife motif.
  3. Hauntings. What bigger mystery is there than what happens after death? If it's so simple as "rotting," then how are there literally hundreds of thousands of cases of experiences with ghosts, spirits, angels, demons, energies, and poltergeists throughout just the last few decades alone?
  4. Nazca Lines. From South America, made from AD 200-600, these symbols are sometimes kilometers long and wide, and were made by removing the dark pebbles from the surface of the desert, revealing a light color underneath. These are only visible from the sky, begging questions of air travel or advanced technology. This one is a favorite of UFO conspiracy theorists.
  5. The Philadelphia Project, Area 51, Knights Templar, Skull & Bones, the Masons. Men have created just as many mysteries in the recent decades of human history as civilizations did thousands of years ago. Everywhere there is something worth taking a look at. In fact, I highly recommend the Bard of Ely's hub:

Even as "nuggets," those barely scratch the surface. I hope you all enjoyed this hub, and please feel free to leave me a comment. Happy interesting and enlightening reading :) !

What Great Historical Mysteries Did I Miss?

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    • profile image

      Gary Schoenung 

      5 years ago

      Our past is still a mystery because the truth can't possibly coexist with all of the nonsense that we've made up. If you want to see video evidence to prove it including what the pyramids were for just search my name.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      Do you know that in Indonesia there are thousands of pyramids/acropolis/palace under the false mountain? Do you know that all mysteries you asked coming from Indonesia more than ten thousands years ago? Just read Prof Santos and Prof Oppenheimer. It's only the beginning. Bosnia is only part of Indonesia empire. You have to go to Indonesia to find out all these mysteries, because soon it will be uncovered one by one. Go to gunung padang, in west java, where you can find an excavation of "machu-pichu" like but bigger and older (100 m high and 15 ha wide, 13,500 BC)

    • profile image


      9 years ago

      There are a series of well researched books by the Blandford Press which mainly cover warriors from the ancient to modern day. In "CELTIC WARRIORS" pg.32 Caesar speaks of the Celtic ships. Remember, The Roman's sailed on a big lake called the Mediterranean while the Celts sailed the North Atlantic Ocean

    • profile image


      9 years ago

      I think that this is extremely interesting! MAny of these ideas are interesting. I thought it was interesting that you didn't mention anything about Otzi or the Roanoke. I thought those were interesting mysteries. Anyway good stuff here! =)

    • profile image


      9 years ago

      Great work jerry. I enjoyed reading this. I am trying to find more information on the Kerguelen Plateau a under water island four times the size of japan off the west australian coast ( Well actually its closer to antarctica i think). It apparently once connected Australia to India. As one theory suggests that the aboriginal people of Australia originated from a race in africa i wonder if they might have crossed this Plateau and if so might we find some evidence of this.

    • profile image


      9 years ago

      Your article is useful for me and the people who want to know about it .. in my country Indonesia Borobudur extraordinary there, what do you think? Thank you.

    • Bbudoyono profile image


      9 years ago

      There is a small Hindu temple in central Java, Indonesia, called Sukuh temple that looks like a pyramid. There is an inscription stating that it was built in the 14th century but it looks very old.

    • Jerry G2 profile imageAUTHOR

      Jerry G2 

      9 years ago from Cedar Rapids, IA

      Thanks for the comment, Becca! I am fascinated with Stonehenge, as well. Great stuff!

    • BeccaWood profile image


      9 years ago from Southaven, MS

      I just wanted to say I'm glad I'm not the only one who loves Ancient History. I myself am doing research and writing hubs about the Stonehenge, which is my favorite fascination. Keep up the work.

    • profile image


      10 years ago

      I still wonder why Egyptian statues were always damaged about the face???

      And then I am reminded of these calming words:

      GOD grant me the serenity to change the things I can, the courage to understand the things I cannot change and the wisdom to know the difference!!!

    • AskAshlie3433 profile image


      10 years ago from WEST VIRGINIA

      Jerry, this is a great hub. You really have some talent. Take care

    • profile image

      Mike M. 

      10 years ago

      Awesome Article. What do you think about the Ark of the Covenant? Or Edgar Cayce's Supposed Hall of Records?

    • lone77star profile image

      Rod Martin Jr 

      10 years ago from Cebu, Philippines

      Jerry G2, wonderful Hub.

      And could it be possible that the Irish, along with the Picts, Etruscans, Sumerians, Georgians, Dravidians and Basques were descended from Atlantis?

      Plato never described Atlantis as a continent -- merely a large island. And right where Plato said Atlantis existed are the geological features for making and breaking such an island -- a tectonic plate boundary. Only in the last 36 million years did Africa start to rotate around its current Euler pole with respect to the Eurasia.

      This was a recipe for disaster, exacerbated by the ending of the last Ice Age. With massive continental uplift (North America and Europe) from the melting glaciers, great pressure was placed on the tectonic plates between these locations to compensate for that uplift. Atlantis may have succumbed as much from climate change as from geological factors.

      If there was a real Atlantis, it was right where Plato said it was. Geologists and archaeologists are merely frightened by the "A" word and are too chicken to admit it. Careers and funding are on the line. And worst of all, egos are at stake.

      And (saving the best for last), we have proof!

      Yes, proof of an Atlantis-like event happening right when Plato said Atlantis sank. And I'm sure you can guess where I talk about this proof in more detail.

      Keep writing juicy ones like this. Very, very nice!

    • Phyllis Doyle profile image

      Phyllis Doyle Burns 

      10 years ago from High desert of Nevada.

      Jerry, I love history and I love mysteries -- especially when the two are combined to create some awesome subjects to research and read about.

      Great hub! Voted Up and Awesome.

    • dosters profile image


      10 years ago from Chicago

      I remember that when my wife and I visited the Skellig Islands in SW Ireland, that our tour guide said on the boat ride out that "these first few miles (out to the islands) would be the hardest part of an Atlantic journey." Obviously, the monks made the journey many times for supplies. They also had a reverence for the setting sun (symbolizing the death and resurrection of Christ), and the idea that they would have followed it certainly seems plausible. You need to visit the Skelligs. They are awesome!

      Check out some pictures at

    • viking305 profile image

      L M Reid 

      11 years ago from Ireland

      Absolutley great hub. I could feel your passion for history as I read the article. I must be honest although I am Irish and LOVE reading, studying and research irish history I had never heard that theory that the Irish arrived in Aerica so early. Will def be following your hubs. Another person who is passionate about history. Love it!

      Thanks again for a great read

    • outdoorsguy profile image


      11 years ago from Tenn

      thanks. the list of ancient Americans I provided was something I found for my research years ago. rereading it I noted I left off any link to the original article.

      so here it is.

      sorry dont want to take credit from some one else.

      I think your refering to Thor Hyerndal and his Ra voyage. main stream Archeologists and historians still dispute the findings of his Two or three crossings.

      here's a couple of articles you may enjoy

      First Americans may have crossed Atlantic 50,000 years ago

      from the November 18, 2004 edition -

      Who got here first? Debate is rekindled

      Saturday, October 30, 1999

      By Michael Woods, Post-Gazette National Bureau

    • Jerry G2 profile imageAUTHOR

      Jerry G2 

      11 years ago from Cedar Rapids, IA

      Wow, thanks for the great comments, Outdoors Guy! I haven't seen much done on the early Celtic ships, and there does seem to be an assumption that they had insignificant little boats and no advanced sea navigation ability. This may or may not be true (and I lean towards not) but that also doesn't change the fact that a few professors tried the Atlantic crossing with a modern version of those basic ships, and they made it across the Ocean with only limited difficulty - something that had just been presumed impossible. I'll look around to see if I can find the exact reference again, but there's no reason to believe at all that a Celtic crossing was impossible. In fact, there's pretty much no dispute at this point that if the New World wasn't general knowledge, there were certainly many groups of people who already knew about it well before Christopher Columbus.

      Thanks to everyone else for their comments as well, this was one of my favorite hubs to build!

    • outdoorsguy profile image


      11 years ago from Tenn

      Asians. There are two types of prognathism; alveolar prognathism, which is limited to the tooth region, and facial prognathism which affects a much larger area of the face, causing it to jut out, thereby increasing the facial area. At this site, hematite covered bones and associated tools were found. Hematite is blood red in color (in the powdered form) and lends itself well in use as a pigment. Hematite gets its name from the Greek word Hemos meaning blood-like. To date, no DNA analysis has been conducted. Little additional information is available on the World Wide Web about the Gordon Creek Woman.

      Grimes Point Woman

      9,700 year old, no DNA testing

      Location: Nevada

      The Grimes Point Archaeological site is noted for its rock carvings and petroglyphs. Archaeological excavations unearthed the remains of a female believed to be 8-10 years of age at the time of her death. Subsequent testing revealed her remains to be 9,700 years old. A wealth of information on the site and surrounding area can be found, but little information is available on the World Wide Web about the Grimes Point Woman.

      Kennewick Man

      9,300 years old (Caucasoid features)

      Awaiting a Federal Court decision:

      demanded by the tribes for repatriation

      Location: Kennewick, Washington

      Kennewick Man was named after the city where he was discovered. He is 9,300 year old with strong Caucasoid features. He was found in July of 1996 by two men gathered to watch a hydroplane boat race at Columbia Park, in Kennewick, Washington. Initial studies of the skull and bone fragments (more than 390 bones and bone fragments were recovered from a 300-square foot section of the river bottom) showed the remains to be the second oldest ever found in Washington. The state’s oldest were 10,300 years old and were found near Lyons Ferry along the Snake River. At 5 feet 9 inches, the skeleton is taller and thinner than most ancient Indian skeletons. A 2-inch-long stone spear point was lodged in the skeleton’s right hip. It was a stone projectile point used 5,000 to 9000 years ago. Years before his death this projectile had slammed into his hip, remaining there until his death. Additionally, some years before he died, this mans chest had been crushed, and he had to cope with a withered arm.

      Pelican Rapids Woman (Minnesota Woman)

      7,800 years old (Caucasoid features)

      returned to tribes (repatriated)

      Location: Minnesota

      In 1932, a crew of road builders near Pelican Rapids dug into the silt of a lake bed and found the well-preserved fossilized remains of a young girl. The fossil skeleton, found in previously studied layers, was determined to be about 8,000 years old. The much discussed young woman has come to be known as the “Minnesota Woman” and has been extensively measured and studied in order that her racial origin and age may be surmised. Measurements indicate that she is an ancient Homo Sapien, more primitive Mongoloid than the Indian or Eskimo, being long-headed whereas finds of later groups are more or less round headed.

      Spirit Cave Man

      9,400 years old (Caucasoid features)

      returned to tribes (repatriated)

      Location: Nevada

      The Spirit Cave man burial was discovered in a small cave in 1940. The lower burial was found intact and in an excellent state of preservation. It was lined with sagebrush, on which the mortuary bundle was deposited, and then covered with more sagebrush. The upper part of the body was partially mummified: some hair and scalp remained on the head, and his leather moccasins, rabbit-skin blanket, and burial mats were in good condition. The body had been placed on his left side with his knees flexed upward to the level of his hips. Recent radiocarbon dating results indicate that Spirit Cave Man dated to the transitional Pleistocene or early Holocene, more than 9,000 years ago.

      Wizard's Beach Man

      9,200-9,500 years old, DNA

      testing completed

      Location: Nevada

      Wizard's Beach Man was found in 1978 after a prolonged drought had lowered the level of Pyramid Lake northeast of Reno. The discovery site is only about 100 miles from Spirit Cave. The related ages and proximity of these two sites indicate a major Paleoindian presence in the region. An important note, the skulls of these individuals differ considerably from one another; Wizard Beach Man resembles modern Indians, while Spirit Cave Man most resembles the Ainu

      (Ama are the indigenous people of Japan, originally inhabiting northern Japan and Sakhalin).


      9,000 -11,000 years old, DNA testing


      Location: Texas

      The Wilson-Leonard site was discovered in 1973 and deemed as having major archaeological significance. At the Wilson-Leonard site in central Texas studies of a 6-meter-thick sequence of alluvial fan deposits was conducted. Alluvial fans are created over time by disposition of soil and matter. The well preserved archaeological deposits represent the major cultural period of the Holocene and terminal Pleistocene periods. Scientists discovered in the deposits a burial. Radiocarbon dating placed the skeletal remains at 9,000-11,000 years old. Wilson-Leonard deposits were found to be at least 16 feet thick and represented virtually every known interval in local prehistory back to 11,000 years ago.

      Individually, these archaeological discoveries represent a page in the history of early man in North America, but when examined with one another they begin to write another chapter. However, additional work, archaeological investigations, radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis is still needed before the book of history on early man in America is rewritten. It would appear that PaleoIndian populations of North America were far more complex than originally anticipated. Pushing archaeologists into the next century are unanswered questions about the past. Do PaleoIndian represent a single cultural group? Why is it that the oldest PaleoIndian sites appear in South America and not North America? Were there other people on the continent before the arrival of the PaleoIndian?


      Ancient Bones May Rewrite History

      By Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History

      Ancient Bones Revive Debate on Earliest Americans

      By Manny Fernandez, Chronicle Staff Writer


      Who Really were the First Americans?

      By Edie Lau, Scripps-McClatchy Western Service http://www.tri-cityherald.cont/hones/news/1912g7~~...

      Old Bones - Clues to the Past

      By Richard L. Hill of the Oregonian Staff html

      British TV Interviews UTKAnthropologist Richard Jantz

      By Zoe lzloyle, UTK Office of Research 1998/07-22.html

      Friends of Texas Archaeological Research Laboratory

      TARL Update May 1998 http//

      Wilson-Leonard Site

      By Micheal B. Collins and Frank A Weir http://www.csha.ntexasednIhandhookionline/article/... ww/hbw3.html

      Early Human Population Along The Balcones Escrapment

      By Thomas R. Hester http://www.lib.utexas/Libs/GEO/BalconesEscrapmend pages55-62 html

      The First Americans

      By Sharon Begley and Andrew Mnrr


      Spirit Cave Mummy

      Remarkable Discovery

      Mammoth Trumpet Vol. 2, No. 2, 1997

      The Browns Valley Man


      Who was First?

      Discovery Channel Online html

      A famous skeleton returns to the earth

      By Samantha Silva

      Horn Shelter Number Two

      Texas State Historical Association http://www.tsha.utexas.eduIhandboolrJonline/articl...

      The Paleolndian Skeletal Material from Horn Shelter

      By Diane Young


      Prehistoric Artifacts and Settlement Patterns in Dallas, Native American Presence in Area

      SMU Anthropology Department

    • outdoorsguy profile image


      11 years ago from Tenn

      nice.. just a little question here. concerning Brendan. Its supposition that they used Coracles for sea travel. Julius Ceasar and the norse and a few others mentions that the Celts were premier ship builders. in fact Ceasar describes a Celtic vessel, and it was actually ahead of the romans technology of the day.

      to my knowledge there has been little research into Celtic ship building. it seems that the assumption is they all used coracles.

      the norse, were worried during the Time of Brian Boru, because as the Ard Rhi he set up a massive ship building project to patrol the coast lines against norse threats while marshaling and training an army to crush the Norse in Limerick.

      anyway.. if you happen to have some research material on this, id appreciate it. Im still trowling the University stacks and the scholarly web looking for stuff. Kohoe has only touched on it.

      Dr G. since the clovis first idea is dying a painfull death, theres been alot of interest in finds that were at one time dismissed. Mesa Verda comes to mind, Alice Kohoe and others in the field of archeology have written many papers that prepose ancient sea migrations. mostly likely following coastlines. but still.

      theres been some noise the last few years that the land bridge if it existed would have been able to support migrations of peoples. essentially due to tempatures, ice and snow. there would have been no food for seven or eight hundred miles. Ill see if I can find the Authors name and a site for you on that.

      one last thing.. theres a point distibution study and mapping program. which showed some odd results. the largest concentration of point.. clovis and otherwise, are on the east coast and spread out towards the west in ever decreasing numbers. as if indicating Migrations didn't come from the west via a land bridge but from the East. which was also the home of some of the most advanced Native tribes in North America.

      here's a short list from my own research

      Arlington Springs Woman

      10,000-13,000 years old

      DNA Testing Underway

      Location: California

      Discovered in 1959 on Santa Rosa Island, Arlington Springs Woman is estimated to be 10,000-13,000 years old. Santa Rosa Island is one of eight Channel Islands off the southern California coast and is better known for a variety of pigmy Mammoth that once lived there. The remains of Arlington Springs woman have recently been reanalyzed by the latest radiocarbon dating techniques. Radiocarbon dating is conducted by measuring the amount of C-14 (an atomically unstable form of carbon) that is contained in a sample. The result of the testing indicates an approximate age that makes her older than any other known human remains found in North America. She lived at the end of the

      Pleistocene (Pleistocene, the time period that spanned from 1.8 million to 11,000 years ago) a time when sea levels were at least 150 feet lower than today. With lowered sea levels the Northern Channel Islands were joined creating one island. This woman’s presence on an island at this early date is significant, because it demonstrates that earliest Paleolndians (PaleoIndian Period, 13000 BP to 7,900 BPJ had water craft necessary for a crossing of the Santa Barbara Channel.

      Browns Valley Man 8,900 years old

      (Caucasoid Features) returned

      to tribes (repatriated)

      Location: Minnesota

      The Browns Valley man was discovered on October 9, 1933, in a gravel pit on the Plateau Addition of Browns Valley. An investigation of the site determined the age of the grave to be between 8,000 and 12,000 years. Testing revealed that the Browns Valley skeleton was one of the oldest ever found in the United States. Based on examination his features resemble those of a Greenland Eskimo. His jawbone was much wider than that of the mound builder and exceeds in width even that of Heidelberg Man (Homo Erectus). Found with the Browns Valley man were artifacts of a transition period between the Yuma and the Folsom types. The Browns Valley Man was found a few years later than the famous Minnesota Woman, listed later.

      Buhl Woman

      10,800 years old, no DNA Testing,

      returned to tribes (repatriated)

      Location: Idaho

      This 11,000-year-old skeleton of a woman was found in a quarry near the town of Buhl in 1989 and was yielded valuable information about PaleoIndian skeletal morphology and diet. Buhl Woman was one of the best preserved and most thoroughly studied of the known early Americans. Her bones have been measured and photographed, teeth casts made, radio carbon dating and isotopic analysis done, and the geological context of the find recorded; the results appeared in last fall’s issue of American Antiquity. Examination and testing showed that she was between 17 and 21 years of age at the time of her death. Though no DNA analysis was done, the cranial morphology was determined to be similar to that of the American Indians and East Asian populations. Analysis of different carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in bone collagen (bone collagen is produced by removing the calcium content with an acid and reducing the bone to a protein gelatin) suggests that she ate mostly meat and some fish. Wear patterns on her teeth suggests that her food was likely cooked before eaten. Buhl Woman was healthy and cause of her death could not be determined. However, tooth enamel damage and bone development indicated periodic nutritional stress (possibly due to seasonal changes). An obsidian biface, and the eye of a bone needle which

      revealed no signs of wear, suggesting that they may have been made specifically as grave offerings. It appears that there was a deliberate placement of the biface immediate below the skull and would suggest a purposeful interment.

      Horn Shelter, 9,600 years old

      DNA testing underway; returned

      to tribes (repatriated)

      Location: Texas

      In 1970, a PaleoIndian double burial of an adult and child was discovered at the Horn Shelter, Number 2, in central Texas. The archaeological site is located along the western bank of the Brazos River between Waco and Lake Whitney. Two individuals, an adult male and a juvenile, were buried together in a shallow grave and covered with soil and stone slabs. Under the head of the adult was a variety of grave offerings. Included in the offerings were seashell beads, turtle carapaces, flint-knapping tools, red ochre, small slabs of sandstone, flint, and perforated canine teeth. Found with the juvenile was a small-eyed bone needle. Other bones found in and around hearths found under the shelter indicate a heavy dependence on smaller game, though bison bones have been found in deposits in front of the shelter. Both skeletons were fairly complete but had suffered from post-mortem damage. At- the time of his death, the adult male was likely in his mid 30s to early 40s. The juvenile is believed to be a male with an approximate age of 12 years. The only traumatic injury on either individual was a healed fracture of a bone metatarsal (foot bone) on the adult male.

      Hourglass Cave Man

      7,900-7,700 years old DNA testing

      completed returned to tribes


      Location: Colorado

      The Hourglass Cave man, while not among the earliest human skeletons from North America is one of very few from the early Holocene period (The age Of Man, the last 11,000 years). Anthropologists have defined this as the youngest period for (Paleolndians/Americans). Both nuclear and motrochondrial DNA from his bones was recovered. Researchers believe that the cold and the consistent environment of the cave enhanced preservation of his remains. DNA analysis produced no surprises for researchers. They confirm the sex by examining pelvic bones and features from his DNA linked the Hourglass Cave Man to living Amerind populations, though not to a specific tribe.

      Gordon Creek Woman

      9,700 years old (Caucasoid Features),

      No DNA testing

      Location: Colorado

      Discovered in 1965, the Gordon Creek woman had a relatively small face with a distinctive alveolar prognathism, a trait more common in today’s European and African people than in

      Asians. There are two types of prognathism; alveolar prognathism, which is limited to the tooth

    • profile image

      Dr. G 

      11 years ago

      Theres a good possibility that the land bridge did not introduce a discovering population to North & South America. There is a good probability that people were already in the so called new world. Check out all the anomalies on the two continents that date before the "land bridge theory".

    • Hello, hello, profile image

      Hello, hello, 

      11 years ago from London, UK

      I am over the moon for having found you and your hub. To me it was so incredible and interesting information. I enjoyed every bit of it. Please keep writing. I love history and especially information like these. Thank you so very much

    • Jerry G2 profile imageAUTHOR

      Jerry G2 

      11 years ago from Cedar Rapids, IA

      Thanks for the Atlantis links. I'll check them out and see what I think. I've been really happy with the conversations this hub has helped to start, and contrary view points are always welcome as long as they're done with respect.

    • profile image

      Harry Dale Huffman 

      11 years ago

      Check out:

      "Atlantis At Last"--

      "Details of Atlantis Disprove Modern Theories"--

      and "Atlantis, Greenland, and Ancient Testimonies"--

    • Kosmo profile image

      Kelley Marks 

      11 years ago from Sacramento, California

      I share your fascination with the mysteries of the ancient world! Much needs to be uncovered before we understand even a small amount of it. Anyway, I don't think the Irish made it to the New World before the Vikings; the "evidence" is inconclusive, unless you believe writers such as Barry Fell. Very good work. Later!

    • Jerry G2 profile imageAUTHOR

      Jerry G2 

      12 years ago from Cedar Rapids, IA

      Hi Dorfman, thanks for the comment. The hard part I think with history is trying to make it rational when, since it all involves humans, individuals can be so irrational in nature! I am all for the grain of salt, since so many things can seem so fantastic, but let's just be careful not to take it so far that we start dismissing potential discoveries because it doesn't fit current theory. Thanks for the comment!

    • KDorfman profile image


      12 years ago from Pacific Northwest

      I hadn't heard about the inscription left in VA; I'd assumed that IF Brendan had made it over here, he would have just seen the coast of Canada and turned back. Also, due to the incredulous nature of a lot of things in primary sources, the assumption is that the reader has to take them with a grain of salt. Interesting.

    • profile image


      12 years ago

      A new mystery that will solve many ancient mysteries includeing Egypts Pyramid and Sphinx,the Olmecs and many other Paleolithic cultures has been found. This discovery of not only artifacts that show all these cultures together but a whole Lost Civilization has been found in West Virginia. This discovery has been suppressed by established archaeological government agencies.You can see some of these artifacts in The Pangea Collection at The evidence proves these artifacts were created by the oldest civilization ever discovered. There has been an organized effort to suppress this discovery and for 5 years it has worked. I am sure I now have overwhelming eveidence to prove beyond any doubt an ancient advanced civilization did exist. I have much more proof than displayed on the web.

    • Jerry G2 profile imageAUTHOR

      Jerry G2 

      12 years ago from Cedar Rapids, IA

      Hi Misty, thanks for stopping by to comment. I'm constantly fascinated by this type of history, and am a firm believer in the "where there's smoke there's fire," theory of studying history. I think there's a whole lot more to "prehistory" than we currently know, and I'm really hoping we find out more in my lifetime. Thanks for the add!

    • mistyhorizon2003 profile image

      Cindy Lawson 

      12 years ago from Guernsey (Channel Islands)

      What an amazing Hub, and really something that fascinates me in so many ways. I am so impressed I have joined your fan club and look forward to reading many more of your hubs.

    • Jerry G2 profile imageAUTHOR

      Jerry G2 

      12 years ago from Cedar Rapids, IA

      Chef, I'm in complete agreement with you. That's why I have "discover" in quotations, since there's no question the original indigenous people discovered the New World. Thanks for the comment!

    • Chef Jeff profile image

      Chef Jeff 

      12 years ago from Universe, Milky Way, Outer Arm, Sol, Earth, Western Hemisphere, North America, Illinois, Chicago.

      I still maintain the ancient people who crossed the Siberian landbridge actualy "discovered" the lands we now call the Americas. But perhaps the Irish, Chinese, Norsemen and others also visited here. I have learned that if a thing is possible, then it is also probable.

      Very well written and researched hub! Thanks for the info!


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