Native American Burial Grounds and Controversy: Artifacts, Pipelines and the Economy
Parodies and Conspiracy Theory
The Onion News Network, an entertaining Mad Magazine type of parody of American TV news magazines, broadcast an interesting show in late 2013. Their contention was that the US economy failed, because the entire country was built upon Native American burial grounds.
Native American burial mounds and other native burying places are blamed for much that is negative in the USA. We hear frequently about hauntings and curses caused by houses and businesses built on top of native burial grounds.
Sinkholes and missing persons are sometimes blamed on these numerous burial place.So many unmarked graves of American Civil War casualties, slaves, and Native Americans exist in North Carolina, that the state funded a large project to trace and mark them all. "Indian" mascots have become a hot button discussion topic. Problems in completing petroleum pipelines are also connected to Indigenous nations by American news media, even though The Onion is a parody.
Native North American artifacts in private collections are being returned to First Nations and Native Americans more quickly in the 2010s than in any years previously since the Indian Removals ended and since Indian Reparations began in the 20th Century. Our 33 separate Indigenous nations of code talkers in World Wars I and II were finally all recognized in 2013.
American Economic Recovery After 2010
In the mid-2010s, the American public and the Presidential Administration were both frustrated with economic recovery post the Great Recession.They were annoyed by problems with national healthcare as well. The Onion parody mentioned above was a humorous toss of all the nation's problems onto the grave of Native North Americans, which graves have long been the basis for superstitions touting related bad luck and hauntings or other paranormal activity that constitute "bad luck.".
Yet, it cannot be "good luck" to have instituted the Indian Removals under President Andrew Jackson, not to have paid for all the native lands taken by federal administrations in the 1800s, and for private individuals to have stolen and sold native artifacts.
Squabbles over Native American mascots used by sports teams are likely not very important in the light of those other injustices.
Placing blame for economic declines in the USA at the feet of Native Americans is not reasonable, but perhaps a small part of the public feels it is just. As with many news parodies, some people believe the Onion report on this topic.
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
This Act of Congress protects Native North American graves and artifacts in the United States and its protectorates. the act became a federal law on November 16, 1990. "bad luck" may not occur from violating this federal law, but legal consequences can ensure.
Felony charges can be levied against violators of the law, including federally funded museums that purchase or accept donations of Native American artifacts in noncompliance with the law.
Recovery of Native American Artifacts
Along with several recognition events in the 2000s and 2010s for Native Americans, including Congressional Medals of Honor for people in the 33 nations or tribes that sent soldiers to act as Code Talkers in both world wars, we saw several discovers of Native American artifacts that were returned to their home nations. This occurred in parallel with European art discoveries recovered in caches that had been amassed by Nazi German looter-collectors.
In 2013, native burial grounds containing artifacts became the center of controversy in light of the intent of oil extractors to span the Bluegrass Pipeline through Kentucky over former Native American lands. The US Army Corps of Engineers began surveying the propsed pipeline route in or before 2012 and called in consultants.
Contracted archaeologists had been examining the land for artifacts and graves in preparation for passage of the natural gas pipeline, but looters struck the examined sites. Human remains had indeed been found in the summer of 2012.
Ceramic remains and an arrowhead were the beginning of the artifacts found. However, no Native American nations were notified of the finds (James Burggers; "Bluegrass pipeline; Indian burial site in way" in the The Courier-Journal, Louisville KY. December 4, 2013).
The pipeline is challenged by Kentuckians United to Restrain Eminent Domain (KURE), a nonprofit corporation. the Bluegrass Pipeline is planned for transporting natural gas liquids fro Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio (which is finally growing jobs thanks to its new oil and gas fields) to the Gulf of Mexico.
Hardin County, Kentucky; Proposed Bluegrass Pipeline
The Kentucky Bluegrass Region is unique. Nowhere else has similar geographic features, geological elements, and attractions like the Abbey of Gethsemane. It all has been formally recognized by the World Monuments Fund, NYC.
The region was formerly inhabited by Cherokee, Chickasaw, Shawnee, and Yuchi nations. The artifacts and burial in Hardin County might belong to any of the four, or to other nations passing through the state.
Conflict Between Pipelines and Native American Facilities
All this activity occurred in Hardin County, Kentucky, a large center of tourism in the state. Native American artifact finds in the area, even on private land, might lead to further development of related tourist attractions or academic study by research universities. New pipelines through the area would disrupt preservation efforts.
Concerns About the Bluegrass Pipeline
Pennsylvania has a well developed system of Native American historic sites and Kentucky might follow that state's example. Native Americans conceivably attempt might to purchase the land on which the artifacts and burials were found in Kentucky. either such a purchase or new tourist attraction could push the Bluegrass pipeline router further afield and even stymie the process of acquiring permits and laying the pipeline.
Native American nations in South Dakota consistently blockaded progress of Canadian trucks carrying pipeline parts and equipment in 2012 and 2013 across their reservation and southward. A similar blockade may occur in Kentucky, if pipeline construction begins over burial grounds.
Return of Cultural Artifacts and Native Partnerships
In 2013, a number of Hopi and Apache masks from the nation in the American Southwest turned up at an auction in Paris, France. The Annenberg Foundation in the US purchased the two dozen masks for over a half million dollars, intending to return them to the Hopi Nation and San Carlos Apache people.
Both nations had learned of the sacred auction of the masks and requested this action be stopped, but the auction house refused in December. Unfortunately, Neret-Minet Tessier & Sarrou in Paris sold over 70 Native American artifacts in April 2013 for over $670,000. (David Ng. "Annenberg Foundation was anonymous bidder for Native American artifacts." Los Angeles Times; December 11, 2013).
A 1970 UNESCO agreement may require that such native artifacts be removed from auction and returned to the original owners. Thus, international law also protects some North American artifacts.
The American economy stands to be affected negatively, if Native American groups blockade several oil and gas pipelines. Failures of surveyors and archaeologists to report native discoveries along the routes of these proposed pipelines can result in ill will and legal charges.
The native nations along these areas might be consulted, as in the case of Native Americans on the reservation in North Dakota that is oil rich. Oil on the reservation led to creation of new native businesses, jobs for natives and non-natives and a long term source of oil for the country.
The superstition of Indian burial ground hauntings against intruders might be eliminated in this way
© 2013 Patty Inglish MS