Native American Nations in Eastern Canada
Cree Bands in Quebec
Cree Nation, Canada and USA
Cree Nation is are one of the largest First Nations in Canada, with 200,000 members living in the country. Nearly 15,000 of these are in Quebec.
Canadian First Nations in Quebec Province
Quebec Province is east of Ontario Province in Canada and borders the Maritime Provinces that include Newfoundland (containing Labrador), New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia.
Over 50 separate bands of First Nations peoples live in Quebec, speaking a mix of French, their own indigenous languages and English. The large number of Native North American groups in Quebec is similar in size to that of First Nations in Ontario, but likely has experienced a large amount of French Influence that is more dominant in Quebec than in Ontario..
In addition to the chart of native groups below, many Cree groups inhabit Quebec as well:
Cree Written Language
Quebec Mohawk Territory
The Kahnawake Mohawk Territory is a Mohawk Reserve on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, across from Montreal. These indigenous people were stumbled upon by French explorers as they built a Jesuit Mission in 1719.
Mohawk Nation in Quebec: Bearskin Lake Mohawks of Kahnawake
Serving the USA
Fifty men from the Kahnawake Preserve volunteered to fight with the United States military during the Vietnam Conflict.
The Mohawk Nation is a strong political group in Quebec, recognized in Canada as a First Nation, but also living in New York State on a reservation. In Quebec:
- Mohawks of Kahnawake
- P.O. Box 720, Kahnawa'kehró:non Raonenhóntsa, J0L 1B0
- (450) 632-7500
In the United States, three groups of Mohawk people live in New York. One group is federally recognized and operates a casino near the NY-Canada Border. Of the other two groups, the Traditional Mohawk is the smaller, and totally unrecognized by federal, provincial, or state governments.
Mohawks of Kahnawake
The Montagnais peoples, who speak several Algonquian dialects, were found by the French as they built a trading post. A Christian mission followed under father Jean d'Albeau, in 1615.
Montagnais Band or "Mountaineers"
Innu montagnais Kathia Rock Sept-Iles Maliotenam native
Indigenous Traditions in Quebec
The Cree First Nation and Tradition
A lovely Cree First Nation tradition of old is the child's Walking-Out Ceremony. This ceremony is conducted in the spring and begins one morning at dawn as the child's family awakens.
The meaning of this ceremony is that the Cree child touches Mother Earth in first contact. He/she is walking outside and touching nature and the universe for the first time. The child is introduced to Mother Nature by meeting the sunrise and carrying all of the implements that symbolize the role he or she will play in a lifetime.
The First Snowshoe Walk is performed in winter to symbolize that the child is ready to travel with adults on his or her own and does not need to be a burden to carry. The child is usually age five or six for this ceremony. This would be done traditionally when the family moved to a winter lodge.
Parents or grandparents would prepare the first snowshoes for the child and ensure that when the day came for the move, everything was ready, including provisions.The parents now walk the child to the lodge as of old and everyone joins a feast there to honor the child's First Snowshoe Walk.
There is no frivolous killing among the Cree.
When a boy or girl is still very young, each will hunt with parents' help and secure a small bird or game animal (boys) or a fish (girls) that is accepted and cooked by the eldest grandmother in the family. The family gives thanks for this food and celebrates the child's achievement and food offering to the family.
These rites of passage help to make childhood memorable and sacred in the culture of the Cree.
Quebec First Nations
Maritime Province Nations
NEW BRUNSWICK (NB)
- Union of New Brunswick Indians (www.unbi.org)
- New Brunswick Aboriginal Peoples Council. Fredericton
- Big Cove Cultural Centre (Mi'kmaq) Big Cove County
- Buctouche Micmac Band (Mi'kmaq) Buctouche
- Burnt Church First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Legaceville
- Eel Ground First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Eel Ground
- Eel River Bar First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Dalhousie
- Fort Folly First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Dorchester
- Indian Island First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Rexton
- Kingsclear First Nation (Maliseet) Fredericton
- Madawaska Maliseet First Nation (Maliseet) Madawaska Maliseet First Nation
- Oromocto First Nation (Maliseet)Oromocto
- Pabineau First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Bathurst
- Red Bank First Nation (Micmac) Red Bank
- St. Mary's Indian Band (Maliseet) Fredericton
- Wolastokwik 'Negoot-gook (Maliseet) Maliseet Nation at Tobique. Perth
- Woodstock Indian Nation (Maliseet) Woodstock First Nation
- Miawpukek First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Baie d'Espoir. Conne River, Newfoundland
- Innu Nation. Sheshatshiu, Labrador
- Labrador Metis Nation. Labrador.
Néthie Canada Mashteuiatsh Chant
Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nation Chiefs (www.apcfnc.ca)
- Elsipogtog First Nation; 249 A Unit Main Street, Elsipogtog, New Brunswick E4W 2X2;
- Micmac Association of Cultural Studies; P.O. Box 961 Sydney NS B1P 6J4; PH 902-567-1752
- Union of Nova Scotia Indians; P.O. Box 961 Sydney, NS B1P 6J4
- Acadia First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Yarmouth
- Afton First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Afton, Antigonish County
- Annapolis Valley First Nation (Mi'kmaq)
- Bear River First Nation
- Chapel Island First Nation (Mi'kmaq)
- Chapel Island, NS
- Eskasoni First Nation (Mi'kmaq) East Bay
- Horton First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Hansport
- Membertou First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Sydney
- Millbrook First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Truro
- Pictou Landing First Nation [Language: MicMac; English] Trenton
- Shubenacadie First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Shubenacadie
- Wagmatcook First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Baddeck
- Whycocomagh First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Whycocomagh
Prince Edward Island (PEI)
- Abegweit First Nation Mount Stewart, PE Is. Language:MicMac;English
- Lennox Island First Nation Lennox Island, Prince Edward Is. Language: MicMac;English
Pow Wow in Millbrook, Nova Scotia
© 2007 Patty Inglish MS