Zitkala-sa: A Native American Intellectual
An Accomplished Violinist
"My heart and I lie small upon the earth like a grain of throbbing sand. Drifting clouds and tinkling waters, together with the warmth of a genial summer day, bespeak with eloquence the loving Mystery round about us."
Yankton Sioux Tribe
The Yanktonai, or the Yankton, also known as the Western Dakota "Middle Sioux" were Native American people originally from the Mississippi Region, which during the 18th century, resided along the Minnesota River area.
By 1860, the Yanton tribe had given up millions of acres to the U.S. government and moved on its present day reservations in South Dakota.
Beauty and Intellect
Not only was she known for her sharp intellect, she was also known for her earthy beauty, an old soul and lover of nature, and champion of truth. Though she was best known as a gifted writer, she pursued other talents, excelling as a musician (pianist and violinist), an editor, teacher, and an outspoken political activist.
She was born Gertrude Bonnin, in 1876, a third child and full blooded Yankton Sioux, but in time, to most, she was known as Zitkala-sa (Red Bird), a Native American icon, whom mother time has not forgot nor has she lost, a daughter of the earth.
As a Native American growing up during the mid to latter 19th century, Gertrude had several troubling odds stacked against her young life. Still perceived as an indigenous amongst the culture back east, in the eyes of the white man, she was in no position of respect, or social standing.
Compounding to this fact, her European-American father abandoned the family while she was still a toddler. When she grew into adolescence, her mother, Ellen Tate, thinking of her daughter's future in a pale-face world, she sent her East so that she might get a white man's education. Though she suffered great loss and disadvantage, Gertrude found a way to overcome her differences.
Carlisle Indian School
A White Man's Education
Gertrude's first experience in a white man's school was at a Quaker Missionary School for Indians, in Wabash, Indiana. After several years of primary and secondary education, she graduated and then eventually moved on to Pennsylvania where she taught music at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School.
Though she was accepted amongst her white peers, Gertrude remained a recluse, not entirely happy with her station in life. She often yearned for her life back home on the plains, which in turn inspired her to write about her native experiences.
By Window Light
For a woman, no less a Native American, Gertrude Bonnin maintained a highly prolific career in writing. Most of her work was centered around autobiographical works, mainly about her life among the Sioux.
Provided below are a few links and a table, distinguishing the various works and accomplishments of Gertrude Bonnin.
"A wee child toddling in a wonder world.... I prefer to their dogma my excursions into the natural gardens where the voice of the Great Spirit is heard in the twittering of birds, the rippling of mighty waters, and the sweet breathing of flowers. If this is Paganism, then at present, at least, I am a Pagan."
Example of Various Works
Noted Works and Accomplishments
American Indian Stories in 1921 with the Hayworth Publishing House
An influential pamphlet with Matthew K. Sniffen of the Indian Rights Association
"A Warrior's Daughter", published in 1902 in Volume 4 of Everybody's Magazine
Oklahoma’s Poor Rich Indians: An Orgy of Graft and Exploitation of the Five Civilized Tribes, Legalized Robbery (1923
Atlantic Monthly "An Indian Teacher Among Indians" published in Volume 85 in 1900
Harper's Monthly "Soft-Hearted Sioux" appeared in the March 1901 issue, Volume 102
An influential pamphlet, with Charles H. Fabens of the American Indian Defense Association
Atlantic Monthly "Impressions of an Indian Childhood" and "School Days of an Indian Girl" published in Volume 85 in 1900
Created and researched for the Indian Welfare Committee of the General Federation of Women’s Clubs
Red Bird Sings
Your Favorite Female Native American Personality?
Not only was Gertrude Bonnin a well-known poet and writer, she was also known for many other accomplishments, namely:
- As a musician, in 1910, Bonnin helped write in collaboration with composer William F. Hanson, The Sun Dance Opera, which premiered in 1913, at Orpheus Hall, in Vernal, Utah.
- The Broadway Theatre ran The Sun Dance Opera in 1938, but unfortunate as it was, the billboard only featured William F. Hanson as the only composer.
- As a member of the Society of American Indians, she dedicated her time by fighting Native American rights to gain full citizenship.
- •In 1916, she became an outspoken voice for the Society of American Indians as the groups elected Secretary she pushed for an investigation into corrupt practices by the Bureau of Indian Affairs against the abuse of Native American children.
- In 1921, Bonnin joined General Federation of Women's Clubs, an organization who promoted women's rights.
- •In the Scientific community, Bonnin was recognized by giving her a honorary title, naming a crater after the Native American authoress on the planet Venus.
- Named a 1999 Honoree by the National Women's History Project.
- •Upon her death, Gertrude Bonnin was buried in Washington DC at the prestigious Arlington National Cemetery.
A Warrior's Daughter
Hoefel, Roseanne. Zitkala-sa, A Biography: The Online Archive of Nineteenth-Century U.S. Women's Writings. Ed. Glynis Carr. Online. Internet. Posted: Winter 1999. <http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/gcarr/19cUSWW/ZS/rh.html>
Wikipedia. Zitkala-sa, November 11th, 2013.