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Native American Nations Around The World - A Genetic Sub-Polar Route
!Breakthough: Native American Haplotype Found In Iceland In 2010!
- A Native American lineage in Iceland
The American Journal of Physical Anthropology (AJPA)
- The American Journal of Physical Anthropology (AJPA) recently published an article by Ebenesersdottier et al. dealing with a newly discovered mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineage: A New Subclade of mtDNA Haplogroup C1 Found in Icelanders: Evidence of Pre-Columbian Contact?
- The researchers conclude that genetic material and markers shared by Native North Americans and their counterparts in Northern Europe (Sami or Saami, etc) made their way to Iceland. Thsi flies int he face of supports of the Vikings-only theory of settlement there.
Recent Altai Evidence
UPDATES DURING 2011
- Haplotype X2a (North American Indigenous) is more closely related to the Altaian & Siberian Haplogroup X2 than to any European Haplogroup X2. A decided difference exists among the varieties of Haplogroups X2.
- Further, we have five (5) unique mutations of Haplogroup X2a and only one (1) has been found in the Eastern Hemisphere - in Iran.
- Are First Nations related to the Iranians?
UPDATES IN NOVEMBER 2007
"We have reasonably clear genetic evidence that the most likely candidate for the source of Native American populations is somewhere in east Asia," said Noah Rosenberg, a genetic researcher at the University of Michigan Medical School.
- Native American and Siberian ancestors (Altai) are the only two groups that experience one specific genetic mutation, strengthening the link between these two peoples.
Note: I've connected, for example, Koreans and Native Americans with the Altai regions to my own satisfaction for many years, and the evidence is coming in to support it. Link for the entire research article is here.
The Genographic Project
- The Genographic Project by National Geographic - Human Migration, Population Genetics
Led by National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Dr. Spencer Wells, the Genographic Project uses advanced DNA analysis to better understand human genetic roots.
- The Genographic Project - Human Migration, Population Genetics, Maps, DNA - National Geographic
Before March 2012, the X haplotype marker found among Native Americans and First Nations of North America had been mapped into Northern Russia/Siberia. Markers from Africa had been traced into North and South America previously.
Languages, Migrations and DNA Markers
The Inuit peoples have been discovered in northeast Siberia/Russia, across the top of North America - Alaska, Canada & Territories, and into Greenland and the Feroa Islands near Denmark. In fact, evidence supports the notion that the Inuit are living or have lived completely around the globe in the Arctic and Subarctic regions.
The Northern European Sami and other peoples are related to or part of the Inuit, evidenced in DNA tracking. Wherever human life began, part of it went north and around the circumpolar regions of the north. This has not been easy, given the harsher climates and their impact on resources for these peoples. They would seem to me, above all else, to be survivors.
In 1996 I found linguistic evidence on a research CD-ROM entry at our local university that certain Iroquois Confederation nations (Mohawk, et.al.), shared the identical word for cousin with the Zulu Nation originally in the Congo -- Sources, including legends, state that the Zulu are descended from the son of a Nguni chief in the Congo Basin. In 2012, the people are largely in KwaZulu-Natal. I was intrigued, because sharing the word for cousin meant that the two nations were probably related genetically, because language and genetics are largely related. In the 200s - 2010s, the Smithsonian/National Geographic/IBM Genographic Project is connecting more dots.
However, there was no detailed genetic research about this link available to the general public through my university at that time..The Internet infrastructure had not yet been installed at my university, but was installed, up and working before the end of 1996, though not widespread and user friendly. Meanwhile, at the learning center at which I worked, our Internet station ran so slowly that any search required 30 minutes in order to provide up a results page, if at all. This was frustrating and not very useful.
By 1999, genetic research begun with studies back in 1992 showed Y chromosome links (via the male heritage line; Y is male and X is female) between and among the nations I've presented in the previous Hubs of this Series on Native American Nations..
This Hub will present additional details from genetic research about these links, along with a list of characteristics that are markers for Native American heritage. By "Native American" I mean any of the related indigenous peoples of the Western Hemisphere and around the Arctic Circle:
- Alaskan Natives
- First Nations, Metis, Inuits; Circumpolar Peoples
- Native Americans
- Indigenous Peoples of Mexico, Central America, and South America
- Pacific and Other Islanders on both margins of the Western Hemisphere
Early Migration of Zulu Nation
A mystery novel based in the author's childhood missionary life in Congo and South Africa. Tamar Myers spent her childhood and early teenage years with her missionary parents in the land of the Zulus. She needed decades of time to digest the beauty and the horrors of what she saw, but she achieved both in this African series of novels, beginning with "The Witch Doctor's Wife."
The Sami teepee is called a "lavvu" in the Northern Sami language.
Sami Parliament Includes Features of Native HouseClick thumbnail to view full-size
Sami House Design
The Sami Migrated Around the Sub-Arctic Regions
- Native American Nations, The People of the North, and 360 Migration Around the Arctic Circle
DNA and other evidence have connected the Indigenous Peoples of all the nations in sub-polar regions around the Arctic Circle, as of 2011. See what this means in this article.
- Sámi-Ainu Cultural Exchange in Hokkaido, Japan | Arctic anthropology
Sami bloodtype A2 is related to peoples in Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean. information at the link.
- Totem Poles in Many Countries, including Ainu People
The history of totem poles around the Pacific Rim and the Cub-Polar regions is many centuries old. In-depth research and interviewing from 1700 to the 21st Century have revealed a history of totem poles globally that was previously unknown.
Sami or Saami Range
Native North Americans and Ancestors Around the Arctic Circle
- The Genetic Prehistory of the New World Arctic; Maanasa Raghavan, et.al.
All Paleo-"Eskimos" arrived in a single (one) migration of people from Siberia into North America. They are different from the ancestors of today's Neo-"Eskimo" Thule lineage.
- Chukchi of Northeast Siberia - The Coastal or Reindeer People
This group was historically in a position to migrat across the Bering Land Bridge. This site contains links to dozens of other People of the North.
- DNA and the Peopling of Siberia
Form the University of Arizona - partnership of US and Russia to study Y Chromosome Variations Siberia.
- Ainu - Another People of the North (Japan)
Spirit of a Northern People. Indigenous to Northern Japan, they are not related to other Japanese peoples.
- The Sami People
These are the "inventors" of the word TUNDRA.
Increase in First Nations Populations
The reporting firm, Statistics Canada, stated in its 2006 Census results on the Indigenous Peoples of Canada that there are 1,172,790 First Nations, Métis and Inuit individuals in Canada.
However, I know that not all Native groups completed the questionnaires for the Census. Therefore, there are more aboriginal individuals living in Canada than were counted in 2006. Perhaps no Census ever records 100% of all individuals.
This First Nations count is an increase that results from higher birth rates among the indigenous peoples than among non-aboriginal groups. The increase in population also results from an increasing number of people beginning to identify themselves as aboriginals in the late 20th and into the 21st centuries.
The Métis are the mixed-heritage individuals in Canada and the USA that have a portion of indigenous DNA. In Canada, their numbers doubled in the 10 years from 1996 - 2006.
Some of Canada's largest cities are home to substantial numbers of indigenous people. These cities include including Winnipeg (10% of the total population), Regina (9% of the population) and Saskatoon (9%). These are large numbers compared to those of 1996.
The First Nations people are significantly younger overall than non-native people in Canada. The median ages of the two groups fall at 27 years for First Nations and 40 years for others, respectively. This First Nations are more younger adults, compared to early middle age among whites and others.
In fact, half of all First Nations members are under 25 years of age. They are in a position to take over some of the jobs left vacant by retiring Baby Boomers in Canada in order to solve the 21st century labor shortage created by this retirement. With various education and training programs available from the Canadian federal and provincial governments to First Nation peoples, this is a good possibility.
Indigenous DNA Testing & Tracking Resources
Are You Native American Or Similar?
DNA testing along father's ancestry and mother's ancestry lines is more available in the 21st century and becoming more frequently accessed. Some tests are expensive, while others are becoming less so. The testing is useful to individuals that cannot trace the documentation of their Native American Heritage, because they can use the positive results in claiming related minority college scholarships
In order to help you decide whether to undergo DNA testing or not, here is a list of characteristics reportedly associated with Native Americans/First Nations in Yahoo Groups and Facebook Organizations, many of which characteristics are not widely known:
1) Wider feet than the general population. This means that you cannot wear an "A" , "AA" or "AAA" width, which are all narrow and in high demand even from people with wider feet, as a fashion statement. Medical science found the widths unhealthy for wider feet, just as it found that using too-small a shoe can be a problem to the structure of any foot.
In some large department stores, the concept of "width" has disappeared from the current manufacture and distribution of shoes, so they are all just a little too narrow (These same shoes are also too wide for people with narrower feet, so they sometimes shop online at specialty shoemakers.) There may be a difference, also, in the structure of the arch of the foot among the Indigenous people in question. NIKE produces wider shoes for the Native American foot. Thus, there is truth to this characteristic being brought forward.
2) Lack of hair on the abdomen - not even a light fuzz, usually, according to Native American comment posters online.
3) High cheekbones that, if you wear glasses, the lenses are consistently smeared at the bottom or below the center of the lenses. (I have this and it is annoying.)
4) Tooth structure. There are two characteristics to look for:
The first is a type of "shoveling" - almost like a scoop or the flatter side of a spade - on the inside of the top 4 front and bottom 4 front teeth, with an extra ridge before you get to the root. Sometimes this involves additional frontward teeth. (I have these characteristics, while my friends from Scandinavia do not.).
The second hallmark characteristic is the lack of a fifth cusp on certain molars - European descendants most often have that extra cusp (a point) to make a total of 5 cusps. The exception is found in a single Eastern European culture.
5) Are you a descendant of Europeans or African-Americans that may have intermarried with Native Americans? Although some of these individuals do not look like Native Americans, they may possess the indigenous DNA as part of the larger intermixed group of Metis, Metiza or similar designations. It is particularly interesting that it appears as though a portion of Mohawk people, historic and current, have looked more like Europeans than do other Native Nations.
© 2008 Patty Inglish