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Nazism and the Rise of Hitler - Part 1

Updated on December 1, 2019

Nazism And The Rise Of Hitler - Weimar Republic

Introduction

  • Hitler wanted to make Germany a mighty power and also wanted to conquer all of the Europe.
  • Nazism killed many Jews. Nazism is not one or two isolated acts. It was the system, structure of ideas about the world and politics.
  • Hitler along with his propaganda minister Goebbels committed suicide in Berlin bunker in the month of April.
  • When the World War II ended, International Military Tribunal (IMT) was set up in Nuremberg.
  • IMT gave punishment to Nazi war criminals for three crimes. i) War against Peace ii) Crimes against Humanity iii) War Crimes.

International Military Tribunal ( IMT )

  • During World War II , Germany has waged a Genocidal War. Due to this war 6 million Jews, 200,000 Gypsies, 1 millions Polish civilians, and 70,000 Germans who were physically or mentally disabled .
  • These people were killed by putting them into poisonous gas killing centres such as Auschwitz.
  • The Nuremberg Tribunal sentenced 11 Nazis to death and others were given the imprisoned for life.
  • The punishment of the Nazis was far short of brutality and extent of their crimes.

Map Of Germany

Birth Of The Weimar Republic

World War - I

  • Germany with Austrian Empire fight with Allied powers( England, France and Russia ) in World War I.
  • The World War I had drained all the resources of Europe.
  • Germany had made initial gain by occupying France and Belgium.
  • When USA had joined World War in 1917 so, power of Allied power increased. Germany and Central powers were defeated in November 1918.

Weimar Republic

  • Due to the defeat of Germany in World War I , Kaiser had to abdicate.
  • National Assembly of Germany met at Weimar to established a democratic constitution with federal structure.
  • Representative or deputies were elected in German parliament - Reichstag .
  • Universal adult franchise was there in Germany. Women were also included in Universal adult franchise
  • Many people of Germany had not accept this Republic because Germany was defeated in World War I.

Germany Parliament - Reichstag

Versailles Peace Treaty

  • The Versailles Peace treaty was signed by Germany to the Allied powers.
  • It was a harsh and humiliating treaty for Germany

Features of Versailles Peace Treaty

  • Germany had lost his overseas colonies, one- tenth of his population, 26% of coal and 75% of iron to France, Poland, Lithuania, Denmark.
  • Allied powers demilitarised Germany to weaken its power.
  • The War Guilt Clause held Germany for responsible for war and suffering of Allied countries.
  • Germany was forced to pay 6 billion Pound as compensation.
  • The Allied countries also occupied Rhineland - resource rich area of Germany.
  • Germans held Weimar Republic responsible not only for the defeat of the war bit also disgrace they face in Versailles.

The Effects Of The War

  • It impact the entire continent psychologically and financially
  • Europe turned into creditors to debtors.
  • Socialist, Catholics, and Democrats were become easy target of conservative nationalist circle. They were known as November Criminals.
  • Soldiers were placed above the civilians .
  • Politicians and publicist wanted man to be aggressive, masculine ad strong.
  • Media glorified trench life.
  • Solidiers had to face poisonous gasses and enemy shelling. There rank were reducing rapidly.
  • The soldiers live miserable life in trenches, living with rats who feed on corpses.
  • In Germany, conservative dictatorship had come into the being.
  • Democracy was young and fragile idea. It could not survive in instability of Europe.

Political Radicalism And Economic Crises

  • The Weimar Republic coincided with Spartacist League, which followed pattern of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
  • Russian's workers and sailors were established in many German cities.
  • There was demand of Soviet style governance in Berlin.
  • Veteran soldiers organisation is called Free Corps.
  • Free corps included Catholic, Democrats, Socialist . They were against the Spartacist League.
  • Spartacist League founded the communist party of Germany.
  • When there was the clash between Spartacist League and Weimar Republic, so, it gave rise to Hitler.
  • Both militant nationalist and revolutionaries carved for radical solutions.


Spartacist League in Germany

Germany Fall into Depression

  • Germany had fought war on loans. The war reparation had to be paid in gold.
  • Germany gold reservoir was reducing at a rapid pace.
  • When Germany refused to pay the gold, France had occupied Ruhr area of Germany which was leading industrial area in country.
  • After then, Germany recklessly printed paper currency. With too much money in circulation in market, German mark value fell.
  • In April 1$ = Mark 24000, July $1= 353,000 marks. This value of mark was running into trillions in Dcember.
  • People were carrying loads of money in cart to buy one loaf of bread.
  • Hyperinflation occur - a situation where prices of goods get phenomenally high.
  • Americans help German to come out of Depression by Dawes Plan. Americans also gave ease to German for their financial burden.

The Great Depression

  • German investments and industries were operating on the loans. These loans are provided by USA.
  • Wall Street Exchange crashed in 1929.
  • On 24th October, 13 million shares were sold.
  • This was the start of The Great Economic depression

Effects of Great Depression on USA

  • National income fell by half.
  • Factories shut down.
  • Exports of USA were fell.
  • Farmers were badly hit.
  • Speculators had withdrawn there money from the market.

Effects of Great Depression on Germany

  • By 1932, industrial production of Germany fell by 40%.
  • Most of the workers had lost their jobs or got reduced wages.
  • Number of unemployment persons were 6 million.
  • People of Germany hang placards on their neck and saying " willing to do any work ".
  • Many of the youth took criminal activities and total despair become commonplace.
  • Most the youth were sitting at the corner or queued up on local employment exchange.

Effects of Great Depression on Middle class and Business

  • Many saw their savings losing their value.
  • Small businessman, retailers, self- employed suffered as their business got ruined.
  • Big business owners or industrialist come into the category of working class.
  • The farmers affected by the sharp fall of their agricultural produced.
  • Woman were unable to fill their children's stomach, were filled with sense of deep despair.


Weimar Republic was Fragile

  • The Weimar republic had some deflects, which gave more favour to Dictatorship.
  • Proportional representation - When single party can't get majority. Coalition party rule the country.
  • Article 48 - President had powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights, and rule by decree.
  • Within 239 days, 20 times cabinets were changed. Due to which, there was no proper functioning in Weimar Republic.
  • People also lost confidence in the Democratic Parliamentary system because it do not offer them any solutions to live comfortably in Germany.

© 2019 Aryan Singhal

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