Nazism and the Rise of Hitler - Part 1
Nazism And The Rise Of Hitler - Weimar Republic
- Hitler wanted to make Germany a mighty power and also wanted to conquer all of the Europe.
- Nazism killed many Jews. Nazism is not one or two isolated acts. It was the system, structure of ideas about the world and politics.
- Hitler along with his propaganda minister Goebbels committed suicide in Berlin bunker in the month of April.
- When the World War II ended, International Military Tribunal (IMT) was set up in Nuremberg.
- IMT gave punishment to Nazi war criminals for three crimes. i) War against Peace ii) Crimes against Humanity iii) War Crimes.
International Military Tribunal ( IMT )
- During World War II , Germany has waged a Genocidal War. Due to this war 6 million Jews, 200,000 Gypsies, 1 millions Polish civilians, and 70,000 Germans who were physically or mentally disabled .
- These people were killed by putting them into poisonous gas killing centres such as Auschwitz.
- The Nuremberg Tribunal sentenced 11 Nazis to death and others were given the imprisoned for life.
- The punishment of the Nazis was far short of brutality and extent of their crimes.
Map Of Germany
Birth Of The Weimar Republic
World War - I
- Germany with Austrian Empire fight with Allied powers( England, France and Russia ) in World War I.
- The World War I had drained all the resources of Europe.
- Germany had made initial gain by occupying France and Belgium.
- When USA had joined World War in 1917 so, power of Allied power increased. Germany and Central powers were defeated in November 1918.
- Due to the defeat of Germany in World War I , Kaiser had to abdicate.
- National Assembly of Germany met at Weimar to established a democratic constitution with federal structure.
- Representative or deputies were elected in German parliament - Reichstag .
- Universal adult franchise was there in Germany. Women were also included in Universal adult franchise
- Many people of Germany had not accept this Republic because Germany was defeated in World War I.
Germany Parliament - Reichstag
Versailles Peace Treaty
- The Versailles Peace treaty was signed by Germany to the Allied powers.
- It was a harsh and humiliating treaty for Germany
Features of Versailles Peace Treaty
- Germany had lost his overseas colonies, one- tenth of his population, 26% of coal and 75% of iron to France, Poland, Lithuania, Denmark.
- Allied powers demilitarised Germany to weaken its power.
- The War Guilt Clause held Germany for responsible for war and suffering of Allied countries.
- Germany was forced to pay 6 billion Pound as compensation.
- The Allied countries also occupied Rhineland - resource rich area of Germany.
- Germans held Weimar Republic responsible not only for the defeat of the war bit also disgrace they face in Versailles.
The Effects Of The War
- It impact the entire continent psychologically and financially
- Europe turned into creditors to debtors.
- Socialist, Catholics, and Democrats were become easy target of conservative nationalist circle. They were known as November Criminals.
- Soldiers were placed above the civilians .
- Politicians and publicist wanted man to be aggressive, masculine ad strong.
- Media glorified trench life.
- Solidiers had to face poisonous gasses and enemy shelling. There rank were reducing rapidly.
- The soldiers live miserable life in trenches, living with rats who feed on corpses.
- In Germany, conservative dictatorship had come into the being.
- Democracy was young and fragile idea. It could not survive in instability of Europe.
Political Radicalism And Economic Crises
- The Weimar Republic coincided with Spartacist League, which followed pattern of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
- Russian's workers and sailors were established in many German cities.
- There was demand of Soviet style governance in Berlin.
- Veteran soldiers organisation is called Free Corps.
- Free corps included Catholic, Democrats, Socialist . They were against the Spartacist League.
- Spartacist League founded the communist party of Germany.
- When there was the clash between Spartacist League and Weimar Republic, so, it gave rise to Hitler.
- Both militant nationalist and revolutionaries carved for radical solutions.
Spartacist League in Germany
Germany Fall into Depression
- Germany had fought war on loans. The war reparation had to be paid in gold.
- Germany gold reservoir was reducing at a rapid pace.
- When Germany refused to pay the gold, France had occupied Ruhr area of Germany which was leading industrial area in country.
- After then, Germany recklessly printed paper currency. With too much money in circulation in market, German mark value fell.
- In April 1$ = Mark 24000, July $1= 353,000 marks. This value of mark was running into trillions in Dcember.
- People were carrying loads of money in cart to buy one loaf of bread.
- Hyperinflation occur - a situation where prices of goods get phenomenally high.
- Americans help German to come out of Depression by Dawes Plan. Americans also gave ease to German for their financial burden.
The Great Depression
- German investments and industries were operating on the loans. These loans are provided by USA.
- Wall Street Exchange crashed in 1929.
- On 24th October, 13 million shares were sold.
- This was the start of The Great Economic depression
Effects of Great Depression on USA
- National income fell by half.
- Factories shut down.
- Exports of USA were fell.
- Farmers were badly hit.
- Speculators had withdrawn there money from the market.
Effects of Great Depression on Germany
- By 1932, industrial production of Germany fell by 40%.
- Most of the workers had lost their jobs or got reduced wages.
- Number of unemployment persons were 6 million.
- People of Germany hang placards on their neck and saying " willing to do any work ".
- Many of the youth took criminal activities and total despair become commonplace.
- Most the youth were sitting at the corner or queued up on local employment exchange.
Effects of Great Depression on Middle class and Business
- Many saw their savings losing their value.
- Small businessman, retailers, self- employed suffered as their business got ruined.
- Big business owners or industrialist come into the category of working class.
- The farmers affected by the sharp fall of their agricultural produced.
- Woman were unable to fill their children's stomach, were filled with sense of deep despair.
Weimar Republic was Fragile
- The Weimar republic had some deflects, which gave more favour to Dictatorship.
- Proportional representation - When single party can't get majority. Coalition party rule the country.
- Article 48 - President had powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights, and rule by decree.
- Within 239 days, 20 times cabinets were changed. Due to which, there was no proper functioning in Weimar Republic.
- People also lost confidence in the Democratic Parliamentary system because it do not offer them any solutions to live comfortably in Germany.
© 2019 Aryan Singhal