ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Non Cooperation Movement

Updated on December 23, 2012

Causes of the Non Cooperation Movement

Annulment of the Rowlatt Act, and remedying the Punjab Wrong, ie., the British Government should express its regret on the happenings in the Punjab particularly in Amritsar. Remedying the "Khilafat Wrong", i.e. the British should adopt a lenient attitude towards Turkey, which was one of the defeated countries in the First World War. Satisfying the nationalist urge for "Swaraj" by offering a new scheme of meaningful and substantial reforms.

When the British refused to meet any one of the main demands of the Congress, an All-Party conference was held at Allahabad in June, 1920 and a program of boycott of Government Schools, Colleges and Law Courts was approved. The Congress met in a special session in September, 1920 at Calcutta and agreed to start the non-cooperation movement unless the British meet its demands. This decision was further endorsed at its Nagpur session held in December, 1920. The Congress, therefore, under the leadership of Gandhi started the Non-cooperation Movement in right earnest in January, 1921.

Programs taken-up in the Non Cooperation Movement

Boycott of Government or semi-government schools and Colleges of British Courts, of elections to be held for the councils as suggested by the Reforms of 1919, and finally of foreign goods. Surrender of titles and honorary offices and resignation from nominated seats in local bodies. Refusal to attend Government or semi-Govt. functions. Refusal by the military, clerical and labouring classes to offer themselves as recruits in Mesopotamia.

Through these negative program, the Indians sought to refuse to cooperate with the British in administering and exploiting their motherland.

Establishment of national schools and Colleges and private arbitration courts, known as Panchayats all over India. Popularization of "Swadeshi" and "Khadi" by reviving hand-spinning and hand-weaving. Development of unity between Hindus and Muslims. Removal of un-touchability, and other measures for Harijan welfare. Emancipation and upliftment of women.

Course of the Non Cooperation Movement

Jan-March, 1921 was marked by the boycott of Government schools and colleges by teachers and students, and of courts of. the lawyers.

April-June, 1921 witnessed concentration on raising funds (Rs. 1 crore) for the Tilak Swaraj Fund, enrolling common people as members of the Congress, and installing charkas (Spinning Wheels) on a large scale.

On July-November, 1921 saw the concentration on the boycott of foreign goods and on organisation of volunteer bands to organize a nation wide hartal on the eve of the visit of the the prince of Wales (17th November).

Nov, 1921 - Feb, 1922 witnessed certain developments which nearly brought the Government to its knees. Some militant sections, angered by the repressive policy of the British, were demanding complete independence and were in favor of giving up the non-violence dogma. The general mood of the people also was quite rebellious. But unfortunately the whole movement was abruptly called off on 11th Feb, 1922, at Gandhi's insistence, following the news of the burning alive of 22 policemen by angry peasants at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district of UP. on 5th February, 1922.

The Indian Nationalist Movement, for the first time in the history, acquired a real mass base with the participation of the different sections of Indian society such as peasants, workers, students, and teachers, women, merchants, etc, However the big industrialists, capitalists, Zamindars, etc, still remained hostile.

The movement witnessed the spread of nationalism to the remotest corners of the Country. It transformed the Indian National Congress from a deliberative assembly to an organisation for action, as evident from the various programmes of the movement. It marked the height of Hindu-Muslim-unity which could be seen in the merger of the Khilafat Movement with this movement. The movement demonstrated to a remarkable degree the willingness and ability of the masses to endure hardships and make sacrifices in the cause of national independence. Thus, though the movement failed to achieve any one of its three main demands, it was, nevertheless, a great step forward in the course of the Indian Nationalist Movement.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      pratiksha 

      2 years ago

      an interesting topic . good

    • profile image

      fordie 

      6 years ago

      An interesting topic. Hope you will follow up with other related ones. The Punjab Wrong would need explaining to many. I visited the relevant park in Amritsar with a schoool group and know a little about the horrifying events there

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)