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5 Wild Turkey Species Native to North America [photos]

Updated on May 8, 2019
GA Anderson profile image

GA Anderson is a freelance writer for private and commercial publishing platforms.

North American wild turkeys; these five sub-species are native to North America; Eastern, Osceola, Rio Grande, Merriam, and Gould wild turkeys.

These details cover each sub-species; the size of their populations, what they eat, and where to find their habitats.

The five North American wild turkey sub-species: Eastern, Osceola, Merriam, Goulds, and Rio Grande  - *see composite image components citations
The five North American wild turkey sub-species: Eastern, Osceola, Merriam, Goulds, and Rio Grande - *see composite image components citations | Source

5 North American Wild Turkey Sub-Species (Types)

There is only one North American wild turkey species; the Meleagris gallopavo, but that single species is broken down into five sub-species;

  • Eastern
  • Osceola
  • Merriam
  • Gould
  • Rio Grande.

Their territories range from most of North America, (Eastern wild turkey), to extremely regional, (Osceola and Gould wild turkey).

Wild Turkeys in North America

How many types of wild turkeys are in North America? Just these five!

With the abundance of wild turkeys in North America, and the popularity of turkey hunting, the answer to the question; "How many species of wild turkeys are native to North America?" might surprise you. Because the answer is one! The Meleagris gallopavo. And even more surprising - there are only two species of wild turkeys in the world.

The way a question is asked can often make a lot of difference in the answer, because if instead of asking about species, it had asked about types, ie. "How many types of wild turkeys are native to North America?" then the answer would have been a more believable five. These five sub-species make up the entire population of wild turkeys in North America.

Eastern Wild Turkey

The Eastern wild turkey, (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris), is the most predominate North American sub-species, with both the largest population and the largest distributed habitation area.

Eastern wild turkey - male (tom)
Eastern wild turkey - male (tom) | Source

Eastern Wild Turkey Diet:

The “Eastern” has a variety of foods in their diet, ranging from grapes and blackberries, beechnut and acorns, to grains like corn and oats. They also enjoy eating insects such as grasshoppers and beetles.

The Eastern wild turkey is traditionally the recognized Thanksgiving turkey enjoyed by the early Puritans, and generations of Americans since.

This sub-species was first described and named by naturalist L.J.P. Vieillot in 1817, using the Latin term silvestris, meaning "forest" turkey.

Eastern Wild Turkey Flock, males and females, (toms and hens)
Eastern Wild Turkey Flock, males and females, (toms and hens) | Source

Eastern Wild Turkey Range:

Their natural range covers the entire eastern half of the United States; from Maine in the North to northern Florida in the South, and extending as far west as Michigan. Their population is estimated to exceed 5 million. Their habitat also extends to the eastern region of Canada.

It prefers mixed and hardwood forests and is also the most hunted of the five sub-species. The males, (toms), can grow as tall as four feet, (top of fanned tail), and weigh as much as 30 pounds. The female, (hen), typically weighs much less; 8 to 14 pounds.

The Eastern wild turkey is most readily identified by its chestnut or chocolate brown-tipped tail feathers. (it is the tail feathers that extend into the iconic "fan" display)

A second primary identification for this sub-species is the wing feathers, which display a bold white and black bar pattern. Both sexes have traditional white, red, and blue head coloration, including iridescent hues.

Eastern Wild Turkey North American Habitat
Eastern Wild Turkey North American Habitat | Source

Wild Turkey Sounds

The Osceola Wild Turkey

The Osceola wild turkey, (Meleagris gallopavo osceola), also known as the Florida wild turkey, has one of the smallest habitation regions, and sub-species populations. It is found only on the Florida peninsula, and their population is estimated at less than 110,000.

It is very similar in appearance to the Eastern wild turkey, except that it is physically smaller and its colors are much darker. It also has white and black bars on its primary wing feathers, but unlike the Eastern, the Osceola's wing bars are small and much more erratic and less uniform in size.

The Osceola "tom" generally stands 3 to 3.5 feet tall and weighs around 20 pounds. The female weighs almost the same as an Eastern wild turkey but is about a foot shorter.

Osceola "tom" Wild Turkey
Osceola "tom" Wild Turkey | Source

The Osceola Wild Turkey Diet

The Osceola has essentially the same diet as the Eastern wild turkey; grapes, blackberries, beechnut, acorns, and grains, such as corn and oats, and insects like grasshoppers and beetles. They will also eat small lizards and frogs and other small amphibians found around the edge of swamp areas.

This subspecies was described and named by Naturalist and Birder, W.E.D. Scott, in 1890, who named it for the famous Seminole Chief Osceola.

The Osceola Wild Turkey Habitat Range

Osceola Wild Turkey Habitat Range
Osceola Wild Turkey Habitat Range | Source

But Don't Invade Their Turf...

The Rio Grande Wild Turkey

The Rio Grande wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) is native to the central plains states and got its common name from the area in which it is found, the southern Great Plains states of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Northeastern Mexico.

The Rio Grande sub-species is more nomadic than its eastern cousins and will migrate to nesting areas as much as ten miles away from their normal habitations. They prefer open scrub over wooded areas, which is also unlike their tree-loving cousins.

Rio Grande Wild Turkey - male (tom)
Rio Grande Wild Turkey - male (tom) | Source


These turkeys are more pale and copper colored than the Eastern or Florida sub-species and their tail feathers and rump coverts are tipped with yellowish-buff or tan color instead of the chocolate or medium browns of its cousins. They also have longer legs, even though their general body size and height are similar to the others.

The Rio Grande Wild Turkey Diet:

Rio Grande's diet is very similar to the others... ie. chokecherries, bearberries, grains like corn, oats and wheat, and other bush fruit and seeds native to their habitat. They also enjoy eating insects such as grasshoppers, spiders, and beetles.

The Rio Grande wild turkey was first described, and named, by George B. Sennett in 1879. Sennett described it as intermediate in appearance between the eastern and western subspecies, hence its scientific name - Meleagris gallopavo intermedia

The Rio Grande Wild Turkey Range

Rio Grande wild turkey habitat region
Rio Grande wild turkey habitat region | Source

As mentioned, their primary natural range is the southern Great Plains states, but California has completed several major sub-species transplantation efforts and now also has a large Rio Grande population.

The Rio Grande's population is estimated to be between 1 and 1.3 million birds.

The Merriam Wild Turkey

The Merriam Wild Turkey, (Meleagris gallopavo merriami), is found primarily in the ponderosa pine, western mountain regions of Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota. And also the high mesa country of New Mexico. Their population is estimated at 325,00 to 350,000.

The Merriam wild turkey - male (tom)
The Merriam wild turkey - male (tom) | Source

The Merriam Wild Turkey Appearance:

The Merriam is easily distinguished from the Eastern, Florida and Rio Grande subspecies by the nearly white feathers on the lower back and tail feather margins. It does have black and white color configurations on its primary wing feathers, but not in the distinctive bar pattern of the Eastern sub-species.

It has similar head coloration as the others, but with stronger blue, purple and bronze reflections. The purple and bronze reflections are also visible in its body feathers sheen.

Its physical size is also like the Eastern's, about four feet tall, and weighing around 20 - 25 pounds.

The Merriam Wild Turkey Diet:

Merriams eat a wide variety of foods, including: chokecherries, bearberries, Ponderosa pine seeds, and grains like corn, oats and wheat. They also eat insects such as grasshoppers, spiders and beetles. A Merriam’s diet may also include other plants that are indigenous to the areas of their habitat.

The Merriam wild turkey was first described by Dr. E.W. Nelson in 1900, and named in honor of the first chief of the U.S. Biological Survey, C. Hart Merriam.

The Merriam Wild Turkey Regional Habitat

The Merriam wild turkey Regional Habitat
The Merriam wild turkey Regional Habitat | Source

The Merriam is thought to be the newest, (relatively speaking), of the five North American wild turkey types, and its original habitat is a narrow corridor stretching through the Rocky Mountains of Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado. But it has been widely stocked in other areas, and now can also be found in Nebraska, Washington, California, Oregon, and other areas.

More Wild Turkey Sounds

The Gould's Wild Turkey

The Gould's wild turkey, (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana), like the Osceola, has a very limited range. It is only found in an elongated region that stretches through parts of Arizona and New Mexico, and into northern Mexico. Its population is much more abundant in northern Mexico than in its U.S. region.

The Gould's is also considered a mountain bird, preferring higher elevations to the plains and scrubs of the Rio Grande wild turkey. Another range limiting factor for the Gould's is that the hens seek out nesting areas near bodies of water, like; rivers, streams, natural and livestock ponds.

The Gould's Wild Turkey (a male - "tom")
The Gould's Wild Turkey (a male - "tom") | Source

Commonly seen as the largest of the five North American sub-species, it has longer legs, larger feet and larger center tail feathers than any of the other wild turkeys already described. The predominate colorations of the Gould's are; distinctive white tips on the tail feathers and tail rump coverts, and copper and greenish-golden reflections on their lower back and rump feathers.

The Gould's was first described as a sub-species, and named, by explorer and naturalist J. Gould during his travels in Mexico in 1856

According to the National Wild Turkey Federation, the Gould's wild turkey is the least studied and recognized of the five wild turkey sub-species found in North America, and has the smallest estimated population numbers.

The Arizona Game and Fish Department, U.S. Forest Service, the Centro Ecologico de Sonora, the National Wild Turkey Federation, and other agencies are working cooperatively to reintroduce a strong Gould population first into Arizona, and then into other states where suitable range exists.

Gould's Wild Turkey Habitat Range

Gould's wild turkey habitation range
Gould's wild turkey habitation range | Source

Toms vs. Decoy Hens

Overview - Northern America's Wild Turkey Habitat Regions

*see also composite image component citations
*see also composite image component citations

Did you know there were only two wild turkey species in the world?

See results

Have you ever seen a wild turkey - in the wild?

See results

Information Source Citations

Article informational sources:



3. The Sports Globe

Image Citations:

*Composite image component source citations: Creative Commons images,,,, and personal art and graphic programs: GreenStreet Clipart, Print Shop, Art Explosion Pro Silver Edition Publishing program - *photo and image source credits: divider and separation images -

© 2012 ga anderson

Wild Turkey Species Native to North America Comments

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    • GA Anderson profile imageAUTHOR

      ga anderson 

      23 months ago from Maryland

      Thanks for the read and comment Mike.

      We have a good population in my area too. But I don't see them very often,

    • Readmikenow profile image


      23 months ago

      Good article. Where I live I see many wild turkeys every year. In the woods behind my house there are many of them. I put up my camping hammock and woke up one day, there was about 30 turkeys moving around my hammock trying to get to a field. It was something to see. I enjoyed reading this and learning many things I did not know.

    • Perspycacious profile image

      Demas W Jasper 

      3 years ago from Today's America and The World Beyond

      45 were in the field behind our family home in Maine recently, so the state has had great success in fostering their abundant return. The wild variety flies well, too, and roosts high at night.

    • Kristen Howe profile image

      Kristen Howe 

      5 years ago from Northeast Ohio

      Nice photos of a variety of turkeys here, GA. Very interesting. You're missing a period after 1856 in your hub. Voted up!

    • profile image

      google seo 

      8 years ago

      Hello there, just discovered on Yahoo, and found that it's really awesome. I'm gonna watch out for brussels. I will appreciate if you keep writing about this subject in future. Lots of people will benefit from your writing. Cheers!

    • GA Anderson profile imageAUTHOR

      ga anderson 

      8 years ago from Maryland

      @Aviannovice - thanks for the visit and comment.

      I have heard other stories about the same kind of behavior - apparently they can be entertaining in multiple ways


    • aviannovice profile image

      Deb Hirt 

      8 years ago from Stillwater, OK

      Voted up and interesting. I lived in rural ME, and groups of them would come to visit. They liked birdseed and if you fed them, they would return. None of the ones in my area were aggressive, but they would rap on the door if you didn't notice their arrival.

    • GA Anderson profile imageAUTHOR

      ga anderson 

      8 years ago from Maryland

      @JKenny, thanks for reading "Wild Turkey Species Native to North America," and you are right - they can get aggressive.

      Thanks for the comment and vote too


    • JKenny profile image

      James Kenny 

      8 years ago from Birmingham, England

      Interesting hub. I remember reading somewhere that wild turkeys can get very aggressive. I think there's a clip on youtube somewhere of a turkey attacking a policemen. It's a wonder they were ever domesticated. Great work. Voted up.


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