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Notes: Give Me Liberty! An American History: Chapter 3
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Chapter 3 - Creating Anglo-America (1660-1750)
Chapter 3 - Creating Anglo-America (1660-1750)
- How did the English empire in America expand in the mid-seventeenth century?
- How did slavery take root in the Atlantic World?
- What major social and political crises rocked the colonies in the late seventeenth century?
- What were the directions of social and economic change in the eighteenth-century colonies?
- How did patterns of class and gender roles change in eighteenth-century America?
Chapter 3 Notes
- Political tensions continued
- Bloodiest battle of 17th century (in New England) - Indians attacked half of the 90 BR colonies. Iroquois helped colonists
- Indians Leader = Metacom (Wampanoag leader, known by colonists as King Philip) led the attacks.
- Metacom was captured and killed; led to a broadening of freedom for New Englanders.
The Expansion of England’s Empire
- The Mercantilist System
- Soon became clear that the colonies = large source of wealth
- Mercantilism - said gov should regulate trade to promote eco power.
- Exports should exceed imports
- Navigation laws passed - certain “enumerated” goods (basically the most valuable - sugar & tobacco) had to be transported in English ships and sold initially in English ports, although they could then be re-exported to foreign markets.
- Also, most goods from colonies had to be shipped thru England (customs paid). (AM ships = considered English ships, so they profited as well)
The conquest of New Netherland (NY)
- King Charles II (ENG) overtook NN and gave it to his brother, James (Duke of York), giving him full power. That’s why it’s called New York now.
- The Eng turned New York into a major trading seaport and a launching pad for military operations
New York and the Rights of Englishmen and Englishwomen
- Their was still religious freedom in New York, but women lost their right to run businesses in their name and also property inheritance
- Blacks, however, were removed from very skilled jobs.
New York and the Indians
- Alliance was formed w/ Iroquois Confederacy.
- Iroquois Confederacy were forced East by FR and other Indian tribes. They developed a policy of careful neutrality b/c of this, just profiting from fur trade.
The Charter of Liberties
- B/c Colonists of Long Island were complaining of NOT having the “liberties of Englishmen”, they drafted a Charter of Liberties and Privileges
- it gave them the “liberties” (making them superior to Dutch settlers), as well as elections held every 3 years
The Founding of Carolina
- Started w/ settlers in Barbados (richest plantation economy) - wealthy planters moved there. It was a “colony of a colony”
- Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina - proposed to est a feudal society w/ a hereditary nobility, serfs, and slaves. Offered 150 acres to each member of arriving family.
- This didn’t really happen. Slavery really made it hierarchical
Carolina slowly grew into the wealthiest elite in ENG North America and also the epicenter mainland center The Holy Experiment
- Pennsylvania! Est by William Penn to escape religious persecution
- Charles II - supported Will b/c Charles owed Will’s father $$. Charles gave Penn a vast track of land SW of New York, and also the old Swedish colony that became Delaware
- Society of Friends, or Quakers, were persecuted in ENG so they came here
- Considered everyone equal; they were the first whites to repudiate slavery. Liberty was universal, not entitled to individuals
- Penn and the Indians - actually purchased land from Indians and gave refuge to Ind’s who were chased away from other colonies.
- Religious freedom = Penn’s most fundamental principle. Was also a strict code of personal morality - gov prevented swearing, drunkenness, adultery, etc..
Land in Pennsylvania
- Penn sold land for cheap rather than giving it out, but turned no profit.
- Pennsylvania started to attract many indentured servants from Virginia and Maryland, eventually making them dependent on slave labor.
Origins of American Slavery
- Slaves had many advantages; their terms never expired, and they couldn’t claim protections under English law.
- AF slaves were also used to intensive agricultural labor
- Englishmen and Africans
- English viewed any alien ppls w/ disdain
- Racism was a new concept started in the 17th century
- Slaves were almost always outsiders, transported from elsewhere to their labor place
Slavery in History
- Slavery had existed since the beg of time.
- AM slavery (plantations), however, encouraged the creation of a sharp boundary btwn slavery and freedom. New World, it’s associated w/ race
Slavery in the West Indies
- 17th century - slave trade was major international business. Only a small handful were taken to ENG colonies
- Sugar = first crop to be mass-marketed to consumers in Europe. It was by far the most imp product of the BR, FR, and Portuguese empires.
- 1660, Barbados generated more trade than al the other ENG colonies combined
Slaves cost more than indentured servants, (and high death rates) making them unappealing to buy a lifetime of labor. Slavery and the Law
- Las Siete Partidas - SP laws granting slaves certain rights.
- ENG laws were far more repressive.
- Chesapeake laws abt blacks= most ambiguous...eventually became very repressive against blacks. Even free blacks had a poll tax and couldn’t inter-racial marry.
- Anthony Johnson - slave arrived in Virginia and somehow got free, then owned several hundred acres of land and slaves
The rise of Chesapeake slavery
- Slavery for whites and blacks started relatively equal, but around the 1660s the conditions for each greatly changed
- Virginia law of 1662 - Children of one slave and one free person, the child was considered the same as the mother (making slave-children profitable for slaveowners)
- Church even prohibited marrying blacks (if you weren’t black)
Bacon’s Rebellion: Land and labor in Virginia
- Shift from white indentured servants to AF slaves as main labor force.
- Virginia’s tobacco boom benefitted farmers and planters. It created a big poverty level.
- Gov William Berkeley- kept peaceful relations w/ Indians
- Rebellion - One indentured servant accused of planning an uprising
- Started w/ a small Indian/colonist confrontation, Settlers demanded that gov authorize their extermination but he disagreed, led to uprising
- Leader = Nathaniel Bacon. Bulk of the men were discontented men (previously servants)
The end of the Rebellion, and its consequences
- Bacon promised freedom for all who joined him. Scared off Berkeley and he became the leader of Virginia.
- Rebellion ended when English warships arrived to restore order.
- Solution = authorities reduced taxes and adopted a more aggressive Indian policy, opening a western areas to small farmers.
A slave society
- Death rates fell, so lifetime labor was now worth the price.
- Also, since the monopoly of the Eng slave trade was over, trade was much cheaper (slaves)
Notions of freedom
- Everyone feared enslavement, and many slaves ran away. When the blacks were in court, they said that they converted to Christianity or had white fathers
- This was one reason why Virginia closed the pathways to freedom (1660s)
Colonies in Crisis
- King Philip’s War of 1675 and Bacons Rebellion: led to uprisings in other colonies
- The Glorious Revolution
- Back to England - established parliamentary supremacy once for all and secured the Protestant succession to the throne.
- King Charles II died and was succeeded by James II (duke of york). Charles had a son, but ppl feared Catholic succession, so they invited the Dutch nobleman William of Orange to assume the throne in the name of Eng liberties
- Notion of the overthrow was that liberty was the birthright of all Englishmen.
Toleration Act in England - freedom of Protestants to worship freely in Eng, but nothing compared to colonies’ freedom The Glorious Revolution in America
- Colonies ran themselves w/ little interference from England
- Navigation Acts made ppl mad
- Sir Edmund Andros - put under control of a single super colony (combination of Connecticut, Plymouth, Mass, New Hamp, Rhode Is, NY, and E/W Jersey)
- Was all seen as a threat to freedom b/c Andros didn’t have to answer to any elected authority
The Maryland Uprising
- Overthrow of King James II in Eng led to rebellions in the colonies (NY taken over, Maryland’s Lord Baltimore overthrew
- Leisler = German born Calvinist who divided NY along economic and ethnic lines. Leisler eventually hanged and cut into pieces, but the disputes he created lasted on.
Changes in New England
- After Edmund Andros disposed of, the colonies tried hard to get their charters back. Mass didn’t get it; it got turned into a place where land ownership was the requirement to vote.
Prosecution of witches
- Witches were individuals who were of having entered into a pact with the devil to obtain supernatural powers, which they used to harm others or to interfere w/ natural processes.
The Salem Witch Trials
- Witches usually women. In Salem, they were basically anyone.
- These led to ppl finding scientific evidence about events rather than just attributing them to super-natural events
The Growth of Colonial America
- Colonies have grown immensely: population grew from 230k in 1700 to 2.3 million in 1770
- A Diverse Population
- Very diverse, eventually started the skilled workers of England, whom Eng could ill afford to lose. Eng stopped encouraging emigration end 17th century
Attracting settlers (to colonies)
- BR tried to attract settlers by offering BR citizenship for living in ENG for 7 yrs
- This new thing attracted many diff ppl’s.
The German Migration
- 110,000 in all, largest group migrated to the US.
- Germany was divided into many small states w/ specific religions to worship in each: that’s why they fled,
- Germans traveled as families, and had tight knit farming communities
- BR AM wasn’t a “melting pot” (b/c ppl stayed in homogenous communities)
- Ppl basically came to AM b/c they could do w/e they wanted and achieve w/e they set their mind to, and not be persecuted
Indian life in transition
- Many tribes done with, the remnants formed new tribes
- They were treated fairly by William Penn, but relations got less friendly after Penn passed
- Very different living standards in the colonies
The Consumer Revolution
- The colonies joined the international consumer revolution. British goods in AM colonies.
- Consumerism in a modern sense (the mass production, advertising, and sale of consumer goods) didn’t exist in colonial AM
- Mostly agricultural, however, ports did develop w/ more trade
- Large population of artisans in AM: Typical artisan owned his own tools and labored in a small workshop. B/c they had a skill, they were pretty well off.
- Despite all the BR goods, AM artisans did have the ability to rise to master
An Atlantic world
- All the trade held together the international world.
- Membership in the Empire had many advantages for the colonists
- Protected AM shipping, lax enforcement of Nav. Act gave way to smuggling
Social Classes in the Colonies
- The Colonial Elite
- Merchants quickly became upper class, but they needed connections in ENG to really be successful. No banks in Colonial AM
- Upper class ppl often intermarried and were tight knit families that ruled
- Virginia - said to be governed by a “cousinocracy”
Virginia - you could really only inherit your wealth Anglicization
- It’s the name historians came up with for describing how elites in the colonies became more and more English.
- Desperate to follow an aristocratic lifestyle, many farmers fell into debt - William Byrd = 100,000 pounds of debt
The South Carolina Aristocracy
- Richest group of mainland colonists = SC planters
- SC planters went on vacations to the north and lived lavish lifestyles
- Per Capita wealth = 2300 lbs....freedom from labor was the mark of a gentleman
Poverty in the colonies
- Half of the ppl needed public assistance
- Half of the entire wealth of the colonies rested in the top 10% of ppl overall
The Middle Ranks
- Not much of them...property was considered a precondition to liberty/freedom
Women and the Household Economy
- 18th century = family was the center of economic life
- Several colonies = law required land be passed down to the oldest son
- “Women’s work is never done” - true b/c work kept increasing
North America at Mid-century
- Many colonists enjoyed more freedoms than those in Europe
- Free colonists probably had the highest per capita income in the world.
- Colonists economic growth led to high birthrates, long life expectancy, and expanding demand for consumer goods
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