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Nursing Care Plan for Hypertension
Hypertension is sometimes termed "the silent killer" because those people who have it are symptom free. However, once it is diagnosed, part of the nursing care plan for hypertension is to monitor it regularly because it is already a lifelong condition. Consistent elevation of blood pressure will lead to a higher risk for health problems such as diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia (abnormal blood fat levels that may cause atherosclerotic heart disease). Being one of the prevalent and dangerous diseases, it is very essential that you know the proper assessment and management for hypertensive patients.
Documentation of past medical history and physical examination should be done as a reference. Laboratory studies are also needed to determine if there is any possible target organ damage. Symptoms of hypertension may include shortness of breath, anginal pain, epistaxis, headache, dizziness, alteration in speech, vision, or balance, and nocturia.
In order to have a good start in nursing care plan for hypertension, those symptoms should be assessed carefully. During physical examination, you should also monitor the character, rhythm, and rate of peripheral and apical pulses. Doing so will help you detect the effects of hypertension on the heart and blood vessels. Another part of nursing assessment and also the most essential step in this case is the careful monitoring of the patient's blood pressure.
Your diagnosis should be based on your assessment (objective and subjective data). Probable nursing diagnoses may be the following:Deficient knowledge regarding the relation between the treatment regimen and control of the disease processNoncompliance with the therapeutic regimen related to side effects of prescribed therapyRisk for decreased cardiac outputAcute pain may be related to increased cerebrovascular pressureImpaired adjustment may be related to condition requiring change in lifestyle
Before you begin in implementing different nursing interventions, you have to determine what your goals are. In nursing care plan for hypertension, the major goals may include increased interest in participation in a self-care program, initiate lifestyle changes that will permit adaptation to present life situations, display hemodynamic ability (such as decrease in blood pressure level), absence of complications, and understanding of the disease process.
The main objective of nursing care plan for hypertension is lowering and controlling your patient's blood pressure. To be able to attain that goal, you have to do specific nursing interventions that will support and teach the patient to follow the particular treatment regimen. Taking medications as prescribed by the doctor is also essential so as a healthcare provider, you have to monitor it closely.
As stated on the planning, the patient has to understand the disease process and the importance of lifestyle changes and medications to control the blood pressure. How are you going to attain that goal? You have to emphasize the concept of controlling hypertension rather than curing it. Encourage the patient to develop a plan for weight loss. The foods that the patient should eat are the foods with low salt and low fat content. Increased fruits and vegetables intake is also recommended. Explain to the patient that it usually takes two to three months before our taste buds adapt to changes.
You should also advise the patient to limit alcohol intake and avoid cigarette smoking, as those will vastly trigger an increase risk in acquiring heart disease. Support groups are also very beneficial during the treatment regimen, specifically support from family and friends. Encourage the family members to do their part by preparing meals according to the patient's diet, and by ensuring that the patient is taking the prescribed medications on time.
You can also assist the patient in developing exercise regimen that will lead to regular activity. Exercises will aid in weight loss and further activity tolerance. Regarding medications, the patient should be aware of the possible side effects and the importance of reporting them. Regular follow up care should also be emphasized.
Expected Outcome of Nursing Care Plan for Hypertension
When all of the nursing interventions are implemented, together with the medication therapy, it is expected that the patient will be able to control the blood pressure. No symptoms of angina, palpitations and vision changes will be demonstrated and the patient will report increased wellness. If the patient cooperates and complies with the therapeutic regimen, further health problems will be avoided.