ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

OCR Biology Revision - Part 5 - The Heart

Updated on March 7, 2014

Internal Structure of the Heart

The heart consists of 4 chambers:

The Atria

The right atrium:

  • This is one of the two upper chambers of the heart.
  • This chamber receives deoxygenated blood from the body, through the vena cava vein.
  • In the wall of the right atrium is where the sinoatrial (SA) node is located.
  • The sinoatrial node is a mass of specialised tissue which initiates the impulses which stimulate the heart beat.
  • At the bottom of the right atrium is where the atrioventricular (AV) node is located.
  • The atrioventricular node consists of specialised heart tissue which delays the impulse generated by the SA node.

The Left Atrium:

  • The second of the two upper chambers of the heart.
  • Oxygenated blood from the lungs flows into the left atrium through the pulmonary vein.
  • The muscles of both atria are very thin, this is because they do not need to pump the blood very far (only to the ventricles) and therefore they do not create much pressure.

A basic diagram of how the blood enters and leaves the heart (blue lines mean deoxygenated and red lines mean oxygenated).
A basic diagram of how the blood enters and leaves the heart (blue lines mean deoxygenated and red lines mean oxygenated).

The Ventricles

  • When in the atria, the blood flows down into the ventricles through the atrioventricular valves.
  • The atrioventricular valves are small cup shaped flaps of tissue located between the atria and the ventricles.
  • When the ventricles contract the atrioventricular valves fill up with blood and snap shut, this prevents blood flowing back into the atria.
  • The ventricles are separated by a thick wall of muscle called the septum.
  • The septum ensures that the deoxygenated blood in the right ventricle and the oxygenated blood in the left ventricle are kept separate.
  • When the ventricles contract the deoxygenated blood in the right ventricle is pushed through the pulmonary artery which leads to the lungs (in order for the blood to be oxygenated)
  • The oxygenated blood in the left ventricle flows through the aorta which leads to a number of arteries that supply the rest of the body with the oxygenated blood.
  • At the base of the pulmonary artery and aorta are semilunar valves which prevent the blood from flowing back into the ventricles as the begin to relax.
  • The walls of the right ventricle are thicker than that of the atria but still relatively thin. This is because it only needs to pump the blood to the lungs and the lungs are very close to the heart, so it doesn't need to travel far. Also, the blood pressure needs to be kept low because the capillaries in the lungs that the blood will be pumped through are very thin and can easily burst if they are under too much pressure.
  • The walls of the left ventricle are very thick (two or three times bigger than that of the right ventricle), this is because the left ventricle needs to create a lot of blood pressure in order to pump the blood through the aorta and to the rest of the body.

How to read an EGC

  • The waves of a ECG trace are labelled with the letters P, Q, R, S and T.
  • Below is the shape of a healthy persons ECG trace.
  • An elevation of the ST section of the trace can indicate a heart attack.
  • A small and unclear P wave can indicate atrial fibrillation (the heart beat is not coordinated).
  • A deep S wave can indicate an abnormal ventricular hypertrophy (an increase in muscle thickness).

Electrocardiograms (ECG's)

The human body is mainly salty water and so it can conduct electricity.

The electrical activity, initiated by the SA node, that spreads across the heart also spreads outwards away from the heart.

This causes the voltage of the skin to change very slightly and then these potential differences are then detected at various points on the body.

The electrical signals that are produced by the heart are picked up by skin and can be converted into a trace.

The trace of a healthy person has a particular shape and the shape of the trace can sometimes indicate when a part of the heart muscle is not entirely healthy (for instance if a person has an irregular heartbeat).

Key Definitions

Purkyne Tissue:

  • Specially adapted muscle fibres that conduct the wave of excitation from the atrioventricular node down the septum and to the ventricles.

Atrial Systole:

  • The period when the atria contract due to the electrical impulse travelling down cardiac muscle of the heart.

Ventricular Systole:

  • A short period when all for heart valves are closed and the ventricles contract.


  • The period where the blood flows into the heart through the veins and then flows from the atria to the ventricles.

Cardiac Cycle:

  • The sequence of events in one heartbeat.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image


      3 years ago

      Your website was extremely helpful in enabling me to understand me about an Electrocardiogram and their uses.

    • profile image

      Jefferson Taylor 

      4 years ago

      This is really owesome. I get all my information needed for my assignment.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)