Origin of Political Science
The origin of political science can be traced back from 1792 to 1750 BC through the ancient legal and administrative code of Hammurabi. This was known as the Hammurabi code. This code provided the legal and political framework for stable government as justified by the existence of good rule in the ancient time. However, the primary development of political science originated from the time of Plato ( 427-347 BC) a Greek Philosopher who systematically analyzed the political system of the ancient state of Greece that resulted to a political philosophy that transcended from “ Divine Right of the King”.
The origin of political science comes from the term “political” is derived from the Greek word “polis” which means “city” and “science” comes from the Latin term“ scire”. Plato and Aristotle were two political scientists in the ancient Greece who continuously quest for the systematic analysis on the political system of the city-state. Although, Aristotle was the father of political science, the work of Plato on “The Republic” gave him the recognition as the parent of political philosophy. Plato advocated philosopher kings or “guardians” as political rulers who had the necessary wisdom to govern the state. The political philosophy behind the philosopher kings were the intellectual attributes and wisdom to give the best political judgment in governing the state. The “Republic” was the 1st systematic study of the political process that generated the ideal of elite politicians who used more on rationality to govern the state.
On the other hand, Aristotle was the 1st political scientist who excelled in the field of science, logic and politics. He was Greek philosopher who was also a student of Plato and known to be the tutor of Alexander the Great. Aristotle made generalization about the political consequences of the various constitutional processes. His political advocacy was the establishment of written rules of governance and made comprehensive analysis of the political culture of the community. He later called this field as the “queen of sciences.”
In 15th century, Jean Bodin (1530-1596) finally coined the term “political science” based on the organization of institution related to law. It must be noted that the contemporary definition of political science entails in the application of law in the different branches of government. However, a more complete definition of political science when Montesquieu (1689-1755) describe it as the distribution of the different function among separate organizations along legislation, execution and adjudication of law.
As result of the evolving principles and concepts of political science, the original ideas of Plato and Aristotle on government and state had fully realized in the systematic study of political organizations and institution in the contemporary time. The political manifestation of the idea of Aristotle generated the fundamental study on the law of the land through the formulation, enactment and application of constitution. As a written law of the state provides information of the basic political structure, processes and systems of governance.
It further studies the concepts of political power and authority as manifested by the presence of laws, constitution, institutions and its relationships to the political affairs of the society. Likewise, this is vested by the power of government officials who handled the political affairs of state .Generally, the decision making of government officials is to provide the basic services needed for general welfare such as peace and security, the improvement of roads and bridges, construction of government buildings, and other social services. The appointment of government and diplomatic officials who may interact with those of elite group with economic wealth in the society.